Wendy Doniger

From Dharmapedia Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (born November 20, 1940) is an American Indologist whose professional career has spanned five decades.


Reception[edit]

Recognition[edit]

Since she began writing in the 1960s, Doniger has gained the reputation of being "one of America's major scholars in the humanities".[1] Assessing Doniger's body of work, K. M. Shrimali, Professor of Ancient Indian History at the University of Delhi, writes:
... it (1973) also happened to be the year when her first major work in early India's religious history, viz., Siva, the Erotic Ascetic was published and had instantly become a talking point for being a path-breaking work. I still prescribe it as the most essential reading to my postgraduate students at the University of Delhi, where I have been teaching a compulsory course on 'Evolution of Indian Religions' for the last nearly four decades. It was the beginning of series of extremely fruitful and provocative encounters with the formidable scholarship of Wendy Doniger.[2]
Doniger is a scholar of Sanskrit and Indian textual traditions.[3] By her self-description,
I myself am by both temperament and training inclined to texts. I am neither an archaeologist nor an art historian; I am a Sanskritist, indeed a recovering Orientalist, of a generation that framed its study of Sanskrit with Latin and Greek rather than Urdu or Tamil. I’ve never dug anything up out of the ground or established the date of a sculpture. I’ve labored all my adult life in the paddy fields of Sanskrit, ...[4]

Her books both in Hinduism and other fields have been positively reviewed by the Indian scholar Vijaya Nagarajan[5] and the American Hindu scholar Lindsey B. Harlan, who noted as part of a positive review that "Doniger's agenda is her desire to rescue the comparative project from the jaws of certain proponents of postmodernism".[6] Of her Hindu Myths: A Sourcebook Translated from the Sanskrit, the Indologist Richard Gombrich wrote: "Intellectually, it is a triumph..."[7] Doniger's (then O'Flaherty) 1973 book Asceticism and Eroticism in the Mythology of Śiva was a critique of the "Great tradition Śivapurāṇas and the tension that arises between Śiva's ascetic and erotic activities."[8] Richard Gombrich called it "learned and exciting";[7] however, John H. Marr was disappointed that the "regionalism" so characteristic of the texts is absent in Doniger's book, and wondered why the discussion took so long.[8][9] Doniger's Rigveda, a translation of 108 hymns selected from the canon, was deemed among the most reliable by historian of religion Ioan P. Culianu.[10] However, in an email message, Michael Witzel called it "idiosyncratic and unreliable just like her Jaiminiya Brahmana or Manu (re-)translations."[11]

Criticism[edit]

Beginning in the early 2000s, a disagreement arose within the Hindu community over whether Doniger accurately described Hindu traditions.[12] Together with many of her colleagues, she was the subject of a critique by Rajiv Malhotra[13] for using psychoanalytic concepts to interpret non-Western subjects. Aditi Banerjee, a co-author of Malhotra, criticised Wendy Doniger for grossly misquoting the text of Valmiki Ramayana.[14]

Christian Lee Novetzke, associate professor of South Asian Studies at the University of Washington, summarizes this controversy as follows:

Wendy Doniger, a premier scholar of Indian religious thought and history expressed through Sanskritic sources, has faced regular criticism from those who consider her work to be disrespectful of Hinduism in general.[15]

Novetzke cites Doniger's use of "psychoanalytical theory" as

...a kind of lightning rod for the censure that these scholars receive from freelance critics and 'watch-dog' organizations that claim to represent the sentiments of Hindus.[15]

Philosopher Martha Nussbaum, concurring with Novetzke, adds that while the agenda of those in the American Hindu community who criticize Doniger appears similar to that of the Hindu right-wing in India, it is not quite the same since it has "no overt connection to national identity", and that it has created feelings of guilt among American scholars, given the prevailing ethos of ethnic respect, that they might have offended people from another culture.[16]

While Doniger has agreed that Indians have ample grounds to reject postcolonial domination, she claims that her works are only a single perspective which does not subordinate Indian self-identity.[17]

Professor Michael Witzel of Harvard University has claimed that Wendy Doniger's knowledge of Vedic Sanskrit is severely flawed. When Witzel was publicly challenged to prove this claim, he emailed examples of Doniger's mistranslations and termed her translation as "UNRELIABLE and idiosyncratic".[18][19][20] Nicholas Kazanas, a European Indologist, also criticized Doniger's works and wrote that Doniger seems to be obsessed with only one meaning, the most sexual imaginable.[21] In the Journal of Indo-European Studies, Kazanas wrote, "[Doniger] seems to see only one function ... of fertility and sexuality, copulation, defloration, castration and the like: even bhakti 'devotion' is described in stark erotic terms including incest and homosexuality (1980:87-99:125-129). Surely, erotic terms could be metaphors for spiritual or mystical experiences as is evidenced in so much literature?".[21]

Michael Witzel, Professor of Sanskrit at Harvard University claimed that Wendy Doniger's knowledge of Vedic Sanskrit is severely flawed. When Witzel was publicly challenged to prove this claim, he posted examples of Doniger's translations to a mailing list and called them "UNREALIABLE" [sic] and "idiosyncratic".[22][23][24]

Michael Witzel, Professor of Sanskrit at Harvard University claimed that Wendy Doniger's knowledge of Vedic Sanskrit is severely flawed, which resulted in agitated online discussions. When Witzel was publicly challenged to prove this claim, he posted examples of Doniger's translations to a mailing list and called them "UNREALIABLE" [sic] and "idiosyncratic".[25][26]

Nicholas Kazanas, a European Indologist, also criticized Doniger's works and wrote that Doniger seems to be obsessed with only one meaning, the most sexual imaginable.[21] In the Journal of Indo-European Studies, Kazanas wrote, "[Doniger] seems to see only one function ... of fertility and sexuality, copulation, defloration, castration and the like: even bhakti 'devotion' is described in stark erotic terms including incest and homosexuality (1980:87-99:125-129). Surely, erotic terms could be metaphors for spiritual or mystical experiences as is evidenced in so much literature?".[21]

Michael Witzel, Professor of Sanskrit at Harvard University claimed that Wendy Doniger's knowledge of Vedic Sanskrit is severely flawed, which resulted in agitated online discussions between them. When Witzel was publicly challenged to prove this claim, he posted examples of Doniger's translations to a mailing list and called them "UNREALIABLE" [sic] and "idiosyncratic".[27][28] Religious scholar Christopher Framarin University of Calgary also writes that translation of Manusmrti has mistakes.[29] Other mistranslations in Rig Veda have been pointed out by Antonio De Nicholas, Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of New York, who questions "What is one footed goat doing in the Rg Veda?"[30]

Wendy Doniger uses Freudian psychoanalysis in the study of Hindu texts and Hindu Mythology and this has been controversial.[31] One of her disputed interpretations is related to Mythology of Shiva, who she refers as "erotic ascetic".[32] Nicholas Kazanas, a European Indologist, referring to Doniger's psychoanalytical works and wrote that Doniger seems to be obsessed with only one meaning, the most sexual imaginable.[33] In the Journal of Indo-European Studies, Kazanas wrote, "[Doniger] seems to see only one function ... of fertility and sexuality, copulation, defloration, castration and the like: even bhakti 'devotion' is described in stark erotic terms including incest and homosexuality (1980:87-99:125-129). Surely, erotic terms could be metaphors for spiritual or mystical experiences as is evidenced in so much literature?".[31][21]


Wendy Doniger has been criticized by some Hindus and academic scholars, including Krishnan Ramaswamy and Antonio T. De Nicolás, who have argued that her works consists of mistranslations and misuse of psychoanalysis.[34] Michael Witzel, Professor of Sanskrit at Harvard University writes that Wendy Doniger prefers to "always finds a 'hip' translation such as 'he had sex'" which can "simply" be translate ' "he has come together"—just as the Sanskrit says'.[35] Religious scholar Christopher Framarin of University of Calgary writes that translation of Manusmrti has mistakes.[36]


Wendy Doniger's article on Hinduism for Microsoft Encarta Encyclopædia which was "unsympathetic and negative, in contrast to the articles on Islam and Christianity" in the encyclopedia. and replaced with an article by Arvind Sharma, a religious scholar at McGill University.[37]

In 2001, the The Religions in South Asia ( RISA ) subsection of American Academy of Religion organized a panel entitled "Defamation/Anti-Defamation: Hindus in Dialogue with the Western Academy". Malhotra who was invited to the panel criticized few of the American scholars of Hinduism including Doniger as "denying agency and rights to non-westerners", "academic arson" and concluded by saying that Hindus in the diaspora should be included as "dialog representatives" in the joint study of Hinduism.[37] In September 2002 Rajiv Malhotra, wrote an essay "RISA Lila-1: Wendy's Child Syndrome" which criticized Wendy Doniger and argued the misuse of psychoanalysis.[37][38]

A detailed critique of Doniger's flawed, fraudulent scholarship demolishes the Doniger myth as a sanskritist or as a hinduism 'scholar'. [39]

Doniger's 2009 book The Hindus: An Alternative History has become a book with inaccuracies and biases. Several wrong facts with severe bias against the Hindu mythology can be found.[40][41][42][43] T Though this has been severely criticized by a large number of author and Philosophers. She is also well known for being the author with heavy biases against Hindu mythology[44][45][46][47][48]

Wendy Doniger has been criticized by Hindus and scholars from academia including Michael Witzel, Nicholas Kazanas, Antonio De Nicolas, Krishnan Ramaswamy, S.N. Balagangadhara for her negative portrayals of Hinduism;[49][50] in particular, her article on Hinduism for Microsoft's Encarta encyclopaedia was so criticised. Subsequently, Microsoft removed Doniger's article and replaced it with an article by Arvind Sharma, Birks Professor of Comparative Religion at McGill University.[51] A Washington Post article described the controversy in the following terms:
The attacks against American scholars come as a powerful movement called Hindutva has gained political power in India, where most of the world's 828 million Hindus live. Its proponents assert that Hindus have long been denigrated and that Western authors are imposing a Eurocentric world view on a culture they do not understand.[52]
Doniger was quoted as describing the controversy as follows:
"The argument," she said, "is being fueled by a fanatical nationalism and Hindutva, which says no one has the right to make a mistake, and no one who is not a Hindu has the right to speak about Hinduism at all."[53]

Aditi Banerjee co-author of Invading the Sacred, quotes BBC which calls her "rude, crude and very lewd in the hallowed portals of Sanskrit Academics". She describes Doniger's attacks on her critics as "straw man arguments, that deflect and not confront criticism, she quotes Michael Witzel who calls her Sanskrit "unreliable" and "idiosyncratic", she accuses Doniger of playing the "sex card and the race card without being discriminated against on the grounds of her gender or her race", which she allegedly does to "distract readers who are unfamiliar with the details of the substance of the critiques against her", Banerjee criticises Doniger's characterisation of Rama as a sex-addict as illogical and far-fetched, based on a part of Ramayana which Doniger herself has debunked as a later interpolation. Banerjee conjectures that the removal of Doniger's article about Hinduism in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopaedia was for Doniger's lack of scholarship and objectivity. Doniger is criticised for calling the Bhagwat Gita, a dishonest book that justifies war.[54]

"Myth scholar Wendy Doniger of the University of Chicago was on hand earlier this month to lecture on the Gita. “The Bhagavad Gita is not as nice a book as some Americans think,” she said, in a lecture titled “The Complicity of God in the Destruction of the Human Race.” “Throughout the Mahabharata, the enormous Hindu epic of which the Gita is a small part, Krishna goads human beings into all sorts of murderous and self-destructive behaviors such as war in order to relieve "mother Earth" of its burdensome human population and the many demons disguised as humans … The Gita is a dishonest book; it justifies war,” Doniger told the audience of about 150” Doniger was the subject of a critique by Rajiv Malhotra[55] for using psychoanalytical concepts to interpret non-Western subjects. Malhotra claimed that Hinduism was being demonized to create shame amongst Hindu youth.[56] Christian Lee Novetzke, associate professor of South Asian Studies at the University of Washington, summarizes this controversy as follows: "Wendy Doniger, a premier scholar of Indian religious thought and history expressed through Sanskritic sources, has faced regular criticism from those who consider her work to be disrespectful of Hinduism in general." Professor Novetzke cites Doniger's use of "psychoanalytical theory" as "a kind of lightning rod for the censure that these scholars receive from freelance critics and 'watch-dog' organizations that claim to represent the sentiments of Hindus."[57]</blockquote> While Doniger has agreed that Indians have ample grounds to reject postcolonial domination, she claims that her works are only a single perspective which does not subordinate Indian self-identity.[58]

Professor Vamsee Juluri of the University of San Francisco, on the other hand, noted the Hindus' factual errors, as well as numerous arguably dubious interpretations, but commented that the book is being acclaimed as a work of great scholarship despite its flaws is perhaps because of its accident of privilege; of nationality, of class, and of race, i.e., written by a non-Hindu outsider who was not acquainted with living Hindu traditions. [59] Professor Juluri also noted that scholars from the left have much to learn by learning to listen, by contrast with Hinduism's strong tradition of tolerance, as he commentated that the so-called top of the line seculars have equated any critique of racism and orientalism against Hindus with Hindu fundamentalism. [60]

The Hindus[edit]

Doniger's trade book, The Hindus: An Alternative History was published in 2009 by Viking/Penguin. According to the Hindustan Times, The Hindus was a No. 1 bestseller in its non-fiction category in the week of October 15, 2009.[61] Two scholarly reviews in the Social Scientist and the Journal of the American Oriental Society, though praising Doniger for her textual scholarship, criticized both Doniger's poor historiography and her lack of focus.[62][63] In the popular press, the book has received many positive reviews, for example from the Library Journal,[64] the Times Literary Supplement,[65] the New York Review of Books,[66] The New York Times,[67] and The Hindu.[68] In January 2010, the National Book Critics Circle named The Hindus as a finalist for its 2009 book awards.[69] The Hindu American Foundation protested this decision, alleging inaccuracies and bias in the book.[70]

In February 2014, as part of settlement with plaintiff to a lawsuit brought before an Indian district court, The Hindus was recalled by Penguin India.[71][72][73] Indian authors such as Arundhati Roy, Partha Chatterjee, Jeet Thayil, and Namwar Singh inveighed against the publisher's decision.[74][75] The book has since been published in India by Speaking Tiger Books.[76]

Criticism[edit]

In 2003, Microsoft Encarta removed an entry on Hinduism by Wendy Doniger. This content was removed after protesters argued that its contents were prejudiced, deprecating, and reveal an unsympathetic tone. Sankrant Sanu, who initiated the dialogue [5], notes that the article focussed on external, and mostly fringe elements of myth, ritual, blood and gore, giving little space to either the highly developed systems of Hindu theology and philosophy or its most commonplace practices in comparison to the other articles on religion. In contrast to those on other religions, the article on Hinduism was sprinkled with unfavorable editorial asides that strive to negate any potential favourable perceptions the reader may entertain.

Her work and that of her students has been severely criticised, especially in view of the impact they have on perception of Hinduism, a minority religion in the US. School texts and the general public, which rely on these sources for their information, are alleged to repeat many misconceptions[6] propogated about the religion. In an instance of this supposed negative downstream effect, as noted in a scathing article[7], US anthropologists have strangely concluded that nursing Hindu mothers do not bond with their babies the way white women do.



  • There is generally, therefore, an inverse ratio between the worship of goddesses and the granting of rights to human women. Nor are the goddesses by and large compassionate; they are generally a pretty bloodthirsty lot. Goddesses are not the solution.



  • And of course, [Wendy Doniger's] translation, again is a ‘re’-translation” of others’ works” in which she has “merely added a fashionable(?) Freudian coating… Simple question: if ‘that’ much is wrong in just one story (and this is a small selection only!) — what about the rest of this book and her other translations?… It might have been better to have used the old translations and to have added her Freudian interpretation to them… In sum: The “translation” simply is UNREALIABLE... In view of all of this, I wonder indeed whether Doniger’s translation would have been accepted in the Harvard Oriental Series rather than in Penguin… And a little less hype would also do: ‘a landmark translation, the first authoritative translation in this century’ (cover); ‘to offer to more specialized scholars new interpretations of many difficult verses.’ (p. lxi) — I doubt it.
  • Doniger is fond of using pseudoscientific language to make her dismissive, negative and often poorly evidenced opinions on Hinduism sound weightier than they are—claiming for instance that Western feminists who embrace the Hindu Goddess are wrong because, when she compares India to Monotheistic, Male- God cultures, there is “in general an inverse ratio between the worship of goddesses and the granting of rights to human women.” Doniger does not produce any evidence to substantiate this sweeping statement which she has made....
  • Doniger’s school of scholarship universalizes Freudian methodologies and pathologies, and combines them with obscure Indic materials to weave wild theories about Indian culture. Indians advocating Freudian psychoanalysis have simply accepted and mimicked the Western theories without independently verified clinical and empirical data to establish their applicability in Indian contexts.

Notes[edit]

  1. Martha Craven Nussbaum, The clash within: democracy, religious violence, and India's future, Harvard University Press, 2007 p.249.
  2. Shrimal 2010, p. 68.
  3. Shrimali 2010, p. 67.
  4. Doniger, Wendy, The Hindus: An Alternative History, Viking-Penguin, p. 35 
  5. Nagarajan, Vijaya (April 2004). "[Book Review: The Bedtrick: Tales of Sex and Masquerade]". The Journal of Religion. 84 (2): 332–333. JSTOR 421829. doi:10.1086/421829 – via JSTOR. 
  6. Harlan, Lindsey (28 July 2009). "The Implied Spider: Politics and Theology in Myth. By Wendy Doniger. American Lectures on the History of Religions 16. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. xii + 200 pp. $26.95 cloth". Church History. 68 (2): 529. JSTOR 3170935. doi:10.2307/3170935 – via JSTOR. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Richard Gombrich, Hindu Myths: A Sourcebook Translated from the Sanskrit by Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty Religious Studies, Vol. 14, No. 2 (Jun. 1978), pp. 273–274
  8. 8.0 8.1 Marr 1976, pp. 718–719.
  9. Kakar, Sudhir (April 1990). "Book Review:Other People's Myths: The Cave of Echoes Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty". The Journal of Religion. 70 (2): 293. JSTOR 1203930. doi:10.1086/488386 – via JSTOR. 
  10. Ioan P. Culianu, "Ask Yourselves in Your Own Hearts..." History of Religions, Vol. 22, No. 3 (Feb. 1983), pp. 284–286
    That is why, with the exception of Geldner's German translation, the most reliable modern translations of the Rgveda-W. O'Flaherty's being one of them-are only partial. However, W. O'Flaherty has, in her present translation, a wider scope than other scholars – Louis Renou, for instance, whose Hymnes speculatifs du Veda are a model of accuracy – who prefer to limit their choice to one thematic set of hymns.
  11. Taylor 2011, p. 160.
  12. The interpretation of gods
  13. The axis of neo-colonialism, Malhotra Rajiv, World Affairs, Year : 2007, Volume : 11, Issue: 3, Print ISSN 0971-8052.
  14. "Wendy Doniger Falsehood". 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Christian Lee Novetzke, "The Study of Indian Religions in the US Academy", India Review 5.1 (May 2006), 113–114 doi:10.1080/14736480600742668
  16. Martha C. Nussbaum, The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India's Future, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009), p. 248
  17. "I don't feel I diminish Indian texts by writing about or interpreting them. My books have a right to exist alongside other books." Amy M. Braverman. "The interpretation of gods", magazine.uchicago.edu (University of Chicago Magazine, 97.2), December 2004; accessed February 14, 2015.
  18. Mail from Witzel, subject "W.D.O'Flaherty's Rgveda "
  19. Mail from Witzel, subject "W.D.O'Flaherty's Jaiminiya Brahmana"
  20. Invading the Sacred, p.66
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 Kazanas, Nicholas. Indo-European Deities and the Rgveda. Journal of Indo-European Studies, vol. 29, nos. 3-4 (Fall & Winter 2001), pp. 257-293. Footnote #14 on page 283.
  22. Mail from Witzel, subject "W.D.O'Flaherty's Rgveda"
  23. Mail from Witzel, subject "W.D.O'Flaherty's Jaiminiya Brahmana"
  24. Invading the Sacred, p.66
  25. Krishnan Ramaswamy, Antonio de Nicolas and Aditi Banerjee, ed. (2007). Invading The Sacred: An Analysis of Hinduism Studies in America. Rupa & Co.,. p. 66. 
  26. Alles, Gregory D. (2007). Religious studies: a global view. Routledge. p. 260. 
  27. Krishnan Ramaswamy, Antonio de Nicolas and Aditi Banerjee, ed. (2007). Invading The Sacred: An Analysis of Hinduism Studies in America. Rupa & Co.,. p. 66. 
  28. Alles, Gregory D. (2007). Religious studies: a global view. Routledge. p. 260. 
  29. Framarin, Christopher G. (2009). Desire and Motivation in Indian Philosophy. Taylor & Francis. pp. 76–78. 
  30. Krishnan Ramaswamy, Antonio de Nicolas and Aditi Banerjee, ed. (2007). Invading The Sacred: An Analysis of Hinduism Studies in America. Rupa & Co.,. p. 70. 
  31. 31.0 31.1 Waugh, Earle H. (2005). "The 'Tradition' of the Academy and its critique". In Steven Engler, Gregory Price Grieve. Historicizing "tradition" in the study of religion. 43. Hague, Netherlands: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 262–264. ISBN 9783110188752. 
  32. Yudit Kornberg Greenberg, ed. (ABC-CLIO). "Shiva". 2008. 1. Encyclopedia of love in world religions. p. 572.  Check date values in: |date= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  33. Kazanas, Nicholas (Fall & Winter 2001). "Indo-European Deities and the Rgveda". Journal of Indo-European Studies. 29 (3-4): 283.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  34. Krishnan Ramaswamy; Antonio T. De Nicolás; Aditi Banerjee (2007), Krishnan Ramaswamy, ed., Invading the sacred: an analysis of Hinduism studies in America, Rupa & Co., pp. 66, pp. 132–145 
  35. Witzel, Michael (1996). "How To Enter the Vedic Mind? Strategies in Translating a Brahmana Text" (PDF). Translating, Translations, Translators From India to the West. Cambridge: Harvard Oriental. 1. 
  36. Framarin, Christopher G. (2009). Desire and Motivation in Indian Philosophy. Taylor & Francis. pp. 76–78. 
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 Kurien, Prema A. (2007). "Challenging American Pluralism". A place at the multicultural table: the development of an American Hinduism. Rutgers University Press. pp. 202–203. 
  38. Sharma, Arvind (Spring 2004). "Hindus and Scholars". Religion in the News. Trinity College. 7 (1). 
  39. http://vishalagarwal.voiceofdharma.com/articles/thaah/ "A Chapter-wise Review by Vishal Agarwal"
  40. Whose history is it anyway? March 17, 2010
  41. Oh, But You Do Get It Wrong! April 10, 2010
  42. ‘The Hindus: An Alternative History’ by Prof. Wendy Doniger A Chapter-wise Review by Vishal Agarwal April 10, 2010
  43. "THE HINDUS, AN ALTERNATIVE HISTORY" By Wendy Doniger, A Review of CHAPTER 10 titled "VIOLENCE IN THE MAHABHARATA" by Chitra Raman April 10, 2010
  44. Whose history is it anyway? March 17, 2010
  45. America mai prakashit kuda kachara sahitya April 10, 2010
  46. Oh, But You Do Get It Wrong! April 10, 2010
  47. ‘The Hindus: An Alternative History’ by Prof. Wendy Doniger A Chapter-wise Review by Vishal Agarwal April 10, 2010
  48. "THE HINDUS, AN ALTERNATIVE HISTORY" By Wendy Doniger, A Review of CHAPTER 10 titled "VIOLENCE IN THE MAHABHARATA" by Chitra Raman April 10, 2010
  49. Ramaswamy, Krishnan ed. Invading the Sacred. 2007. New Delhi. Rupa and co.
  50. "The Interpretation of Gods", by Amy Braverman, University of Chicago Magazine: 97:2 (2004)
  51. Hinduism, by Arvind Sharma, Encarta.
  52. [1]“Wrath Over a Hindu God: U.S. Scholars' Writings Draw Threats From Faithful,” by Shankar Vedantam. Washington Post April 10, 2004.
  53. [2]“Wrath Over a Hindu God: U.S. Scholars' Writings Draw Threats From Faithful,” by Shankar Vedantam. Washington Post April 10, 2004.
  54. Banerjee, Aditi (2009-10-28). "Oh, But You Do Get It Wrong!". www.outlookindia.com. New Delhi: The Outlook Group. Retrieved 4 March 2012. 
  55. The axis of neo-colonialism, Malhotra Rajiv, World Affairs, Year : 2007, Volume : 11, Issue: 3, Print ISSN: 0971-8052.
  56. Prema A. Kurien, A place at the multicultural table: the development of an American Hinduism,Rutgers University Press, 2007 p.202
  57. Christian Lee Novetzke, "The Study of Indian Religions in the US Academy", India Review 5.1 (May 2006), 113–114
  58. "I don't feel I diminish Indian texts by writing about or interpreting them. My books have a right to exist alongside other books." Amy M. Braverman. "The interpretation of gods". University of Chicago Magazine, 97.2 (December 2004).
  59. [3]
  60. [4]
  61. "Top authors this week" Hindustan Times Indo-Asian News Service New Delhi, October 15, 2009
  62. Shrimali 2010, p. 80: "There are several issues that need more detailed and nuanced analysis rather than straight-jacketed formulations that we read in The Hindus. These concern terminologies and chronologies invoked, perfunctory manner in which class-caste struggles have been referred to — almost casually, complex inter-religious dialogue seen only in the context of Visnu's avataras, and looking at the tantras merely in terms of sex and political power. The work rarely rises above the level of tale telling. On the whole, this is neither a serious work for students of Indian history, nor for those with a critical eye on 'religious history' of India, nor indeed it is the real Alternative History of the 'Hindus'.
  63. Rocher 2012, p. 303: "She especially loves to illustrate ancient stories by interjecting comparisons with situations with which the audience is familiar: Doniger commands an unbelievably vast array of comparable material, often, though not always, from American popular culture. Doniger acknowledges that the book was not meant to be as long as it turned out to be, "but it got the bit between its teeth, and ran away from me" (p. 1). Several pages are indeed filled with "good stories" that are only loosely, some very loosely, related to the history of the Hindu religion. Going into detail on the drinking and other vices of the Mughal emperors, even though carefully documented, is a case in point (pp. 539-41). ...When it comes to legal history in the colonial period in particular, there are passages that are bound to raise ... eyebrows. ... the history of Hindu law was more complex than is represented in this volume. Anglo-Hindu law was far more than "the British interpretation of Jones's translation of Manu."
  64. James F. DeRoche, Library Journal, 2009-02-15
  65. David Arnold. "Beheading Hindus And other alternative aspects of Wendy Doniger's history of a mythology", Times Literary Supplement, July 29, 2009
  66. David Dean Shulman, 'A Passion for Hindu Myths,' in New York Review of Books, Nov 19, 2009, pp. 51–53.
  67. Pankaj Mishra, "'Another Incarnation'", nytimes.com, April 24, 2009.
  68. A R Venkatachalapathy, "Understanding Hinduism" The Hindu March 30, 2010
  69. "National Book Critics Circle Finalists Are Announced", blogs.nytimes.com, January 23, 2010.
  70. HAF Urges NBCC Not Honor Doniger's Latest Book, as reprinted in the Los Angeles Times, The New Yorker and Sify
  71. "Penguin to destroy copies of Wendy Doniger's book 'The Hindus'" The Times of India
  72. "Penguin to recall Doniger’s book on Hindus" The Hindu
  73. "How Doniger’s now-recalled ‘The Hindus’ ruffled Hindutva feathers" firstpost.com
  74. "Academics, writers decry Penguin's withdrawal of Doniger's book, The Hindus", timesofindia.indiatimes.com; accessed February 14, 2015.
  75. Buncombe, Andrew. "Arundhati Roy criticises Penguin for pulping The Hindus: An Alternative History". The Independent. Delhi. Retrieved February 14, 2015. 
  76. B Mahesh (8 December 2010). "Doniger’s Hindus returns, 20 months after its withdrawal". Pune Mirror. Retrieved 16 December 2015. 

References[edit]

  • Marr, John H. (1976). "Review of Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty: Asceticism and eroticism in the mythology of Śiva. (School of Oriental and African Studies.) Oxford University Press, 1973". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 39 (3): 718–19. JSTOR 614803. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00051892 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)). 
  • Rocher, Ludo (April–June 2012). "Review: The Hindus: An Alternative History by Wendy Doniger". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 132 (2): 302–4. JSTOR 10.7817/jameroriesoci.132.2.0302. doi:10.7817/jameroriesoci.132.2.0302 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)). 
  • Shrimali, K. M. (July–August 2010). "Review of The Hindus: An Alternative History by Wendy Doniger". Social Scientist. 38 (7/8): 66–81. JSTOR 27866725. 
  • Taylor, McComas (June 2011). "Mythology Wars: The Indian Diaspora, "Wendy's Children" and the Struggle for the Hindu Past". Asian Studies Review. 35 (2): 149–68. doi:10.1080/10357823.2011.575206. 

External links[edit]


  • The New Stereotypes Of Hindus In Western Indology [10]