Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic and volcanic activity. Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions:
- Mainland Southeast Asia, also known historically as Indochina, comprising Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar (Burma), and West Malaysia.
- Maritime Southeast Asia, comprising Indonesia, East Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, East Timor, Brunei, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Christmas Island.
Homo sapiens reached the region by around 45,000 years ago, having moved eastwards from the Indian subcontinent. Homo floresiensis also lived in the area up until 12,000 years ago, when they became extinct. Austronesian people, who form the majority of the modern population in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, East Timor, and the Philippines, may have migrated to Southeast Asia from Taiwan. They arrived in Indonesia around 2000 BC, and as they spread through the archipelago, they often settled along coastal areas and confined indigenous peoples such as Negritos of the Philippines or Papuans of New Guinea to inland regions.
Studies presented by HUGO (Human Genome Organization) through genetic studies of the various peoples of Asia, empirically points out that instead of the other way around, another migration from the south first entered Southeast Asia and then travelled slowly northwards.
Solheim and others have shown evidence for a Nusantao (Nusantara) maritime trading network ranging from Vietnam to the rest of the archipelago as early as 5000 BC to 1 AD. The peoples of Southeast Asia, especially those of Austronesian descent, have been seafarers for thousands of years, some reaching the island of Madagascar. Their vessels, such as the vinta, were ocean-worthy. Magellan's voyage records how much more manoeuvrable their vessels were, as compared to the European ships.
Passage through the Indian Ocean aided the colonisation of Madagascar by the Austronesian people, as well as commerce between West Asia and Southeast Asia. Gold from Sumatra is thought to have reached as far west as Rome, while a slave from the Sulu Sea was believed to have been used in Magellan's voyage as a translator.
Originally most people were animist. This was later replaced by Hinduism. Theravada Buddhism soon followed in 525. In the 15th century, Islamic influences began to enter. This forced the last Hindu court in Indonesia to retreat to Bali.
In Mainland Southeast Asia, Burma, Cambodia and Thailand retained the Theravada form of Buddhism, brought to them from Sri Lanka. This type of Buddhism was fused with the Hindu-influenced Khmer culture.
Very little is known about Southeast Asian religious beliefs and practices before the advent of Indian merchants and religious influences from the 2nd century BCE onwards. Prior to the 13th century CE, Hinduism and Buddhism were the main religions in Southeast Asia.
The Jawa Dwipa Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra existed around 200 BCE. The history of the Malay-speaking world began with the advent of Indian influence, which dates back to at least the 3rd century BCE. Indian traders came to the archipelago both for its abundant forest and maritime products and to trade with merchants from China, who also discovered the Malay world at an early date. Both Hinduism and Buddhism were well established in the Malay Peninsula by the beginning of the 1st century CE, and from there spread across the archipelago.
Cambodia was first influenced by Hinduism during the beginning of the Funan kingdom. Hinduism was one of the Khmer Empire's official religions. Cambodia is the home to one of the only two temples dedicated to Brahma in the world. Angkor Wat is also a famous Hindu temple of Cambodia.
The Champa civilisation was located in what is today central Vietnam, and was a highly Indianised Hindu Kingdom. The Vietnamese launched a massive conquest against the Cham people during the 1471 Vietnamese invasion of Champa, ransacking and burning Champa, slaughtering thousands of Cham people, and forcibly assimilating them into Vietnamese culture.
The Majapahit Empire was an Indianised kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. Its greatest ruler was Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from 1350 to 1389 marked the empire's peak when it dominated other kingdoms in the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali. Various sources such as the Nagarakertagama also mention that its influence spanned over parts of Sulawesi, Maluku, and some areas of western New Guinea and the Philippines, making it the largest empire to ever exist in Southeast Asian history.
The Cholas excelled in maritime activity in both military and the mercantile fields. Their raids of Kedah and the Srivijaya, and their continued commercial contacts with the Chinese Empire, enabled them to influence the local cultures. Many of the surviving examples of the Hindu cultural influence found today throughout Southeast Asia are the result of the Chola expeditions.
Spread of Islam
In the 11th century, a turbulent period occurred in the history of Maritime Southeast Asia. The Indian Chola navy crossed the ocean and attacked the Srivijaya kingdom of Sangrama Vijayatungavarman in Kadaram (Kedah), the capital of the powerful maritime kingdom was sacked and the king was taken captive. Along with Kadaram, Pannai in present-day Sumatra and Malaiyur and the Malayan peninsula were attacked too. Soon after that, the king of Kedah Phra Ong Mahawangsa became the first ruler to abandon the traditional Hindu faith, and converted to Islam with the Sultanate of Kedah established in year 1136. Samudera Pasai converted to Islam in the year 1267, the King of Malacca Parameswara married the princess of Pasai, and the son became the first sultan of Malacca. Soon, Malacca became the center of Islamic study and maritime trade, and other rulers followed suit. Indonesian religious leader and Islamic scholar Hamka (1908–1981) wrote in 1961: "The development of Islam in Indonesia and Malaya is intimately related to a Chinese Muslim, Admiral Zheng He."
There are several theories to the Islamisation process in Southeast Asia. Another theory is trade. The expansion of trade among West Asia, India and Southeast Asia helped the spread of the religion as Muslim traders from Southern Yemen (Hadramout) brought Islam to the region with their large volume of trade. Many settled in Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia. This is evident in the Arab-Indonesian, Arab-Singaporean, and Arab-Malay populations who were at one time very prominent in each of their countries. The second theory is the role of missionaries or Sufis. The Sufi missionaries played a significant role in spreading the faith by introducing Islamic ideas to the region. Finally, the ruling classes embraced Islam and that further aided the permeation of the religion throughout the region. The ruler of the region's most important port, Malacca Sultanate, embraced Islam in the 15th century, heralding a period of accelerated conversion of Islam throughout the region as Islam provided a positive force among the ruling and trading classes.
Trade and colonisation
Records from Magellan's voyage show that Brunei possessed more cannon than the European ships, so the Chinese must have been trading with them.
Malaysian legend has it that a Chinese Ming emperor sent a princess, Hang Li Po, to Malacca, with a retinue of 500, to marry Sultan Mansur Shah after the emperor was impressed by the wisdom of the sultan. Han Li Po's well (constructed 1459) is now a tourist attraction there, as is Bukit Cina, where her retinue settled.
The strategic value of the Strait of Malacca, which was controlled by Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th and early 16th century, did not go unnoticed by Portuguese writer Duarte Barbosa, who in 1500 wrote "He who is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice".
From 111 BC to 938 AD northern Vietnam was under Chinese rule. Vietnam was successfully governed by a series of Chinese dynasties including the Han, Eastern Han, Eastern Wu, Cao Wei, Jin, Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang, Sui, Tang, and Southern Han.
Western influence started to enter in the 16th century, with the arrival of the Portuguese in Malacca, Maluku and the Philippines, the latter being settled by the Spanish years later. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries the Dutch established the Dutch East Indies; the French Indochina; and the British Strait Settlements. By the 19th century, all Southeast Asian countries were colonised except for Thailand.
European explorers were reaching Southeast Asia from the west and from the east. Regular trade between the ships sailing east from the Indian Ocean and south from mainland Asia provided goods in return for natural products, such as honey and hornbill beaks from the islands of the archipelago. Before the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the Europeans mostly were interested in expanding trade links. For the majority of the populations in each country, there was comparatively little interaction with Europeans and traditional social routines and relationships continued. For most, a life with subsistence level agriculture, fishing and, in less developed civilizations, hunting and gathering was still hard.
Europeans brought Christianity allowing Christian missionaries to become widespread. Thailand also allowed Western scientists to enter its country to develop its own education system as well as start sending Royal members and Thai scholars to get higher education from Europe and Russia.
During World War II, Imperial Japan invaded most of the former western colonies. The Shōwa occupation regime committed violent actions against civilians such as the Manila massacre and the implementation of a system of forced labour, such as the one involving 4 to 10 million romusha in Indonesia. A later UN report stated that four million people died in Indonesia as a result of famine and forced labour during the Japanese occupation. The Allied powers who defeated Japan in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II then contended with nationalists to whom the occupation authorities had granted independence.
Trade among Southeast Asian countries has a long tradition. The consequences of colonial rule, struggle for independence and in some cases war influenced the economic attitudes and policies of each country until today.
Most countries in the region enjoy national autonomy. Democratic forms of government and the recognition of human rights are taking root. ASEAN provides a framework for the integration of commerce, and regional responses to international concerns.
Conflicting claims over the Spratly Islands are made by Brunei, China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam.
Indonesia is the largest country in Southeast Asia and it also the largest archipelago in the world by size (according to the CIA World Factbook). Geologically, the Indonesian Archipelago is one of the most volcanically active regions in the world. Geological uplifts in the region have also produced some impressive mountains, culminating in Puncak Jaya in Papua, Indonesia at 5,030 metres (16,500 feet), on the island of New Guinea; it is the only place where ice glaciers can be found in Southeast Asia. The highest mountain in Southeast Asia is Hkakabo Razi at 5,967 meters and can be found in northern Burma sharing the same range of its parent peak, Mount Everest.
The South China Sea is the major body of water within Southeast Asia. The Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, and Singapore, have integral rivers that flow into the South China Sea.
Mayon Volcano, despite being dangerously active, holds the record of the world's most perfect cone which is built from past and continuous eruption.
Southeast Asia is bounded to the southeast by the Australian continent, a boundary which runs through Indonesia. But a cultural touch point lies between Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian region of the Papua and West Papua, which shares the island of New Guinea with Papua New Guinea.
Even prior to the penetration of European interests, Southeast Asia was a critical part of the world trading system. A wide range of commodities originated in the region, but especially important were spices such as pepper, ginger, cloves, and nutmeg. The spice trade initially was developed by Indian and Arab merchants, but it also brought Europeans to the region. First Spaniards (Manila galleon) and Portuguese, then the Dutch, and finally the British and French became involved in this enterprise in various countries. The penetration of European commercial interests gradually evolved into annexation of territories, as traders lobbied for an extension of control to protect and expand their activities. As a result, the Dutch moved into Indonesia, the British into Malaya and parts of Borneo, the French into Indochina, and the Spanish and the US into the Philippines. An economic effect of this imperialism was the shift in the production of commodities. For example, the rubber plantations of Malaysia, Java, Vietnam and Cambodia, the tin mining of Malaya, the rice fields of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam and Irrawaddy River delta in Burma, were a response to powerful market demands.
The overseas Chinese community has played a large role in the development of the economies in the region. These business communities are connected through the bamboo network, a network of overseas Chinese businesses operating in the markets of Southeast Asia that share common family and cultural ties. The origins of Chinese influence can be traced to the 16th century, when Chinese migrants from southern China settled in Indonesia, Thailand, and other Southeast Asian countries. Chinese populations in the region saw a rapid increase following the Communist Revolution in 1949, which forced many refugees to emigrate outside of China.
The region's economy greatly depends on agriculture; rice and rubber have long been prominent exports. Manufacturing and services are becoming more important. An emerging market, Indonesia is the largest economy in this region. Newly industrialised countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines, while Singapore and Brunei are affluent developed economies. The rest of Southeast Asia is still heavily dependent on agriculture, but Vietnam is notably making steady progress in developing its industrial sectors. The region notably manufactures textiles, electronic high-tech goods such as microprocessors and heavy industrial products such as automobiles. Oil reserves in Southeast Asia are plentiful.
Seventeen telecommunications companies contracted to build the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable to connect Southeast Asia to the US This is to avoid disruption of the kind recently caused by the cutting of the undersea cable from Taiwan to the US in the 2006 Hengchun earthquakes.
Tourism has been a key factor in economic development for many Southeast Asian countries, especially Cambodia. According to UNESCO, "tourism, if correctly conceived, can be a tremendous development tool and an effective means of preserving the cultural diversity of our planet." Since the early 1990s, "even the non-ASEAN nations such as Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and Burma, where the income derived from tourism is low, are attempting to expand their own tourism industries." In 1995, Singapore was the regional leader in tourism receipts relative to GDP at over 8%. By 1998, those receipts had dropped to less than 6% of GDP while Thailand and Lao PDR increased receipts to over 7%. Since 2000, Cambodia has surpassed all other ASEAN countries and generated almost 15% of its GDP from tourism in 2006.
Indonesia is the only member of G-20 major economies and is the largest economy in the region. Indonesia's estimated gross domestic product (nominal) for 2008 was US$511.7 billion with estimated nominal per capita GDP was US$2,246, and per capita GDP PPP was US$3,979 (international dollars).
Stock markets in Southeast Asia have performed better than other bourses in the Asia-Pacific region in 2010, with the Philippines' PSE leading the way with 22 percent growth, followed by Thailand's SET with 21 percent and Indonesia's JKSE with 19 percent.
Southeast Asia has an area of approximately 4,000,000 km2 (1.6 million square miles). As of 2013, Around 625 million people lived in the region, more than a fifth of them (143 million) on the Indonesian island of Java, the most densely populated large island in the world. Indonesia is the most populous country with 255 million people as of 2015, and also the 4th most populous country in the world. The distribution of the religions and people is diverse in Southeast Asia and varies by country. Some 30 million overseas Chinese also live in Southeast Asia, most prominently in Christmas Island, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, and also, as the Hoa, in Vietnam. People of Southeast Asian origins are known as Southeast Asians or Aseanites.
In modern times, the Javanese are the largest ethnic group in Southeast Asia, with more than 100 million people, mostly concentrated in Java, Indonesia. In Burma, the Burmese account for more than two-thirds of the ethnic stock in this country, while ethnic Thais and Vietnamese account for about four-fifths of the respective populations of those countries. Indonesia is clearly dominated by the Javanese and Sundanese ethnic groups, while Malaysia is split between half Malays and one-quarter Chinese. Within the Philippines, the Visayan (mainly Cebuanos and Hiligaynons), Tagalog, Ilocano and Bicolano groups are significant.
Countries in Southeast Asia practice many different religions. Islam is the most practised faith, numbering approximately 240 million adherents, or about 40% of the entire population, concentrated in Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia, Southern Thailand and in the Southern Philippines. Indonesia is the most populous Muslim-majority country around the world.
Buddhism is predominant in Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma and Singapore. Ancestor worship and Confucianism are also widely practised in Vietnam and Singapore.
Christianity is predominant in the Philippines, eastern Indonesia, East Malaysia and East Timor. The Philippines has the largest Roman Catholic population in Asia. East Timor is also predominantly Roman Catholic due to a history of Portuguese rule.
The religious composition for each country is as follows: Some values are taken from the CIA World Factbook:
No individual Southeast Asian country is religiously homogeneous. In the world's most populous Muslim nation, Indonesia, Hinduism is dominant on islands such as Bali. Christianity also predominates in the rest of the part of the Philippines, New Guinea and Timor. Pockets of Hindu population can also be found around Southeast Asia in Singapore, Malaysia etc. Garuda (Sanskrit: Garuḍa), the phoenix who is the mount (vahanam) of Vishnu, is a national symbol in both Thailand and Indonesia; in the Philippines, gold images of Garuda have been found on Palawan; gold images of other Hindu gods and goddesses have also been found on Mindanao. Balinese Hinduism is somewhat different from Hinduism practised elsewhere, as Animism and local culture is incorporated into it. Christians can also be found throughout Southeast Asia; they are in the majority in East Timor and the Philippines, Asia's largest Christian nation. In addition, there are also older tribal religious practices in remote areas of Sarawak in East Malaysia,Highland Philippines and Papua in eastern Indonesia. In Burma, Sakka (Indra) is revered as a nat. In Vietnam, Mahayana Buddhism is practised, which is influenced by native animism but with strong emphasis on ancestor worship.
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Hinduism (69%), Christianity, Islam, Sikhism and others|
|File:Flag of Brunei.svg Brunei||Islam (67%), Buddhism, Christianity, others (indigenous beliefs, etc.)|
|File:Flag of Myanmar.svg Burma||Buddhism (89%), Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Animism, others|
|File:Flag of Cambodia.svg Cambodia||Buddhism (97%), Islam, Christianity, Animism, others|
|Template:Country data Christmas Island||Buddhism (75%), Islam, Christianity|
|Template:Country data Cocos (Keeling) Islands||Islam (80%), others|
|Template:Country data East Timor||Roman Catholicism (97%), Islam, Protestantism, Buddhism, Hinduism|
|File:Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia||Islam (87.18%), Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, others|
|File:Flag of Laos.svg Laos||Buddhism (67%), Animism, Christianity, others|
|File:Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia||Islam (60.4%), Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Animism|
|File:Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines||Roman Catholicism (80%), Islam (11%), Iglesia ni Cristo (Church of Christ) (3%), Buddhism (2%), Animism (1.25%), others (0.35%)|
|File:Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore||Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Taoism, Hinduism, others|
|File:Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand||Buddhism (93.83%), Islam (4.56%), Christianity (0.8%), Hinduism (0.011%), others (0.079%)|
|File:Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam||Vietnamese folk religion (45.3%), Buddhism (16.4%), Christianity (8.2%), Other (0.4%), Unaffiliated (29.6%)|
The culture in Southeast Asia is very diverse: on mainland Southeast Asia, the culture is a mix of Indochinese (Burma, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand) and Chinese (Vietnam). While in Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore and Malaysia the culture is a mix of indigenous Austronesian, Indian, Islamic, Western, and Chinese cultures. Also Brunei shows a strong influence from Arabia. Singapore and Vietnam show more Chinese influence in that Singapore, although being geographically a Southeast Asian nation, is home to a large Chinese majority and Vietnam was in China's sphere of influence for much of its history. Indian influence in Singapore is only evident through the Tamil migrants, which influenced, to some extent, the cuisine of Singapore. Throughout Vietnam's history, it has had no direct influence from India – only through contact with the Thai, Khmer and Cham peoples.
Rice paddy agriculture has existed in Southeast Asia for thousands of years, ranging across the subregion. Some dramatic examples of these rice paddies populate the Banaue Rice Terraces in the mountains of Luzon in the Philippines. Maintenance of these paddies is very labour-intensive. The rice paddies are well-suited to the monsoon climate of the region.
Stilt houses can be found all over Southeast Asia, from Thailand and Vietnam, to Borneo, to Luzon in the Philippines, to Papua New Guinea. The region has diverse metalworking, especially in Indonesia. This include weaponry, such as the distinctive kris, and musical instruments, such as the gamelan.
The region's chief cultural influences have been from some combination of Islam, India, and China. Diverse cultural influence is pronounced in the Philippines, derived particularly from the period of the Spanish and American rule, contact with Indian-influenced cultures, and the Chinese and Japanese trading era.
As a rule, the peoples who ate with their fingers were more likely influenced by the culture of India, for example, than the culture of China, where the peoples ate with chopsticks; tea, as a beverage, can be found across the region. The fish sauces distinctive to the region tend to vary.
The arts of Southeast Asia have affinity with the arts of other areas. Dance in much of Southeast Asia includes movement of the hands as well as the feet, to express the dance's emotion and meaning of the story that the ballerina is going to tell the audience. Most of Southeast Asia introduced dance into their court; in particular, Cambodian royal ballet represented them in the early 7th century before the Khmer Empire, which was highly influenced by Indian Hinduism. Apsara Dance, famous for strong hand and feet movement, is a great example of Hindu symbolic dance.
Puppetry and shadow plays were also a favoured form of entertainment in past centuries, a famous one being Wayang from Indonesia. The arts and literature in some of Southeast Asia is quite influenced by Hinduism, which was brought to them centuries ago. Indonesia, despite conversion to Islam which opposes certain forms of art, has retained many forms of Hindu-influenced practices, culture, art and literature. An example is the Wayang Kulit (Shadow Puppet) and literature like the Ramayana. The wayang kulit show has been recognized by UNESCO on November 7, 2003, as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
It has been pointed out that Khmer and Indonesian classical arts were concerned with depicting the life of the gods, but to the Southeast Asian mind the life of the gods was the life of the peoples themselves—joyous, earthy, yet divine. The Tai, coming late into Southeast Asia, brought with them some Chinese artistic traditions, but they soon shed them in favour of the Khmer and Mon traditions, and the only indications of their earlier contact with Chinese arts were in the style of their temples, especially the tapering roof, and in their lacquerware.
Traditional music in Southeast Asia is as varied as its many ethnic and cultural divisions. Main styles of traditional music can be seen: Court music, folk music, music styles of smaller ethnic groups, and music influenced by genres outside the geographic region.
Of the court and folk genres, gong-chime ensembles and orchestras make up the majority (the exception being lowland areas of Vietnam). Gamelan and Angklung orchestras from Indonesia, Piphat /Pinpeat ensembles of Thailand and Cambodia and the Kulintang ensembles of the southern Philippines, Borneo, Sulawesi and Timor are the three main distinct styles of musical genres that have influenced other traditional musical styles in the region. String instruments also are popular in the region.
On November 18, 2010, UNESCO officially recognized angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, and encourage Indonesian people and government to safeguard, transmit, promote performances and to encourage the craftsmanship of angklung making.
The history of Southeast Asia has led to a wealth of different authors, from both within and without writing about the region.
Originally, Indians were the ones who taught the native inhabitants about writing. This is shown through Brahmic forms of writing present in the region such as the Balinese script shown on split palm leaf called lontar (see image to the left — magnify the image to see the writing on the flat side, and the decoration on the reverse side).
The antiquity of this form of writing extends before the invention of paper around the year 100 in China. Note each palm leaf section was only several lines, written longitudinally across the leaf, and bound by twine to the other sections. The outer portion was decorated. The alphabets of Southeast Asia tended to be abugidas, until the arrival of the Europeans, who used words that also ended in consonants, not just vowels. Other forms of official documents, which did not use paper, included Javanese copperplate scrolls. This material would have been more durable than paper in the tropical climate of Southeast Asia.
In Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, the Malay language is now generally written in the Latin script. The same phenomenon is present in Indonesian, although different spelling standards are utilised (e.g. 'Teksi' in Malay and 'Taksi' in Indonesian for the word 'Taxi').
The use of Chinese characters, in the past and present, is only evident in Vietnam and more recently, Singapore and Malaysia. The adoption of Chinese characters in Vietnam dates back to around 111BC, when it was occupied by the Chinese. A Vietnamese script called Chu nom used modified Chinese characters to express the Vietnamese language. Both classical Chinese and Chu Nom were used up until the early 20th century.
However, the use of the Chinese script has been in decline, especially in Singapore and Malaysia as the younger generations are in favour of the Latin Script.
- List of Southeast Asian leaders
- Northeast Asia
- South Asia
- Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
- Tiger Cub Economies
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- Rand, Nelson (2009). Conflict: Journeys through war and terror in SouthEast Asia. Dunboyne: Maverick House Publishers. ISBN 978-1-905379-54-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Osborne, Milton (2010; first published in 1979). Southeast Asia: An Introductory History [archive] Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-74237-302-7
- Fletcher, Banister; Cruickshank, Dan (1996; first published in 1896). Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture [archive], Architectural Press, 20th edition. ISBN 0-7506-2267-9. Cf. Part Four, Chapter 27.
- Farah, Paolo Davide (2015) Energy Investments and Environmental Concerns in Southeast Asia [archive], in: Paolo Davide FARAH & Piercarlo ROSSI, ENERGY: POLICY, LEGAL AND SOCIAL-ECONOMIC ISSUES UNDER THE DIMENSIONS OF SUSTAINABILITY AND SECURITY, World Scientific Reference on Globalisation in Eurasia and the Pacific Rim, Imperial College Press (London, UK) & World Scientific Publishing, Nov. 2015.
- R.C. Majumdar. Hindu Colonies in the Far East, Calcutta, 1944, ISBN 99910-0-001-1
- R.C. Majumdar. India and South-East Asia, I.S.P.Q.S. History and Archaeology Series Vol. 6, 1979, ISBN 81-7018-046-5.
- https://www.amazon.com/Chasing-Dragon-Heart-Golden-Triangle/dp/080505507X [archive]
- https://www.amazon.com/Temples-Cambodia-Helen-Ibbitson-Jessup/dp/0865652627 [archive]
- https://www.amazon.com/Siam-Siamese-Travels-Thailand-Burma/dp/9747534517 [archive]
- https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0942777158 [archive]?
- https://www.amazon.com/Ancient-Sukhothai-Thailands-Cultural-Heritage/dp/9749863429 [archive]
thailand ramakian:the thai ramayana. naga books. author unknown (rec by LP) travellers literary companion: sout-east asia edited by alastair dingwall (Rec by LP) hill tribes of northern thailand by gordon young (Rec by LP) buyers guide to thai gems and jewellery, by john hoskins,1998 (rec by LP) english governess at the siamese court by anna leon owens balaban, john (se asia)
- Topography of Southeast Asia in detail [archive] (PDF) (previous version [archive])
- CityMayors.com article [archive]
- Southeast Asian Archive [archive] at the University of California, Irvine
- Southeast Asia Digital Library [archive] at Northern Illinois University
- "Documenting the Southeast Asian Refugee Experience" [archive], exhibit at the University of California, Irvine, Library
- Southeast Asia Visions, a collection of historical travel narratives [archive] Cornell University Library Digital Collection
.southeastasia .org [archive] Official website of the ASEAN Tourism Association
- Southeast Asia Time Lapse Video [archive] Southeast Asia Time Lapse Video
- Southeast Asia eCommerce [archive] Southeast Asia eCommerce
- Art of Island Southeast Asia [archive], a full text exhibition catalogue from The Metropolitan Museum of Art
- List of Southeast Asia eCommerce [archive]
- Philippines Population updated as of 11/20/2016 [archive] //Philippines Population updated as of 11/20/2016
- http://www.vietnameseluxurytravel.com/famous-sacred-temples-pagodas-south-east-asia/ [archive]
- https://www.jstor.org/stable/2055365?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents [archive] India Beyond the Ganges--Desultory Reflections on the Origins of Civilization in Sotheast Asia
- With his volatile mix of dependence and independence, Hamid Karzai seems the archetype of all the autocrats Washington has backed in Asia, Africa, and Latin America since European empires began disintegrating after World War II.
- South East Asian Collection at Yale University [archive]
- Henri Mouhot : Voyages dans les royaumes du Siam du Cambodge et du Laos [archive]
- Mekong Network: Southeast Asia Information [archive]
- Historical/Cultural Reading to Recommend? : Travelfish Books forum [archive]
- Can anyone recommend good books about the region? I'll be in Cambodia and Vietnam for 3 weeks or so : Books forum
- News, resources, books and podcasts about the archaeology and ancient history of Southeast Asia
- Er sprte japanischen Schtzen nach oder einer indischen Ruberknigin, am Ende hatte Tiziano Terzani mehr als 200 Reportagen fr den SPIEGEL geschrieben. Bei //einestages// erinnert sich sein ehemaliger Chef //Dieter Wild// an den legendren Reporter - und an das Misstrauen, das dem Chinesisch sprechenden Italiener zunchst entgegenschlug.
- SEAsite contains a vast amount of information about the languages and cultures of Southeast Asia, concentrating on interactive language lessons which include audio, pictures, and interactive exercises. Authentic reading passages augmented by audio and interactive dictionaries are provided for Indonesian and Tagaglog. Many readings in the other languages have audio and built-in glossaries. Countries represented include Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, Burma, and Laos. SEAsite also includes many English language pages on topics such as batik, temples, and foods.
- Carl Parkes -- FriskoDude: Terrible Restoration Work in Ayuthaya [archive]
- HumanTrafficking.org | Cambodia International Organization: Action pour les Enfants (APLE) [archive]**
- Provides information to combat human trafficking through prevention, prosecution, and victim protection.
- Die Stadt, die keiner kennen durfte - einestages [archive]**
- Gigantisch gro und streng geheim: Fr den Vietnam-Krieg errichtete die CIA eine verborgene Stadt mitten im Dschungel von Laos. Sie hatte 100.000 Einwohner, von ihrem Rollfeld hoben mehr Flugzeuge ab als vom Flughafen Chicago - doch nicht einmal der US-Kongress war eingeweiht.
- SEAArch - The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog [archive]**
- Archaeology news from Southeast Asia
- 20 Minuten Online - Der Fotograf ist tot die Bilder leben - History [archive]
- Er machte Fotojournalismus der besten Sorte: Der Deutsche Horst Faas brachte Bilder aus dem Vietnamkrieg, die aufwhlten und vielfach ausgezeichnet wurden. Jetzt ist er mit 79 Jahren gestorben.
- indigokinder-forum.info [archive]
- Bridges Across Borders [archive]
- Welcome to Bridges Across Borders Southeast Asia! [archive]
- Welcome to Bridges Across Borders Southeast Asia!
- Geschichten aus Hinterindien
- Directed by Angelina Jolie. Cambodian author and human rights activist Loung Ung recounts the horrors she suffered under the rule of the deadly Khmer Rouge.
- From the moment he set foot in the magical land of Burma, David Heath was enchanted by its energy and colour.
- It's an album cover that couldn't have taken more than ten minutes to put together and it stands as one of the most compelling sleeves of all time.
- Bangkok's Khaosan Road, a thriving community that caters to the every need of the budget traveller, from cut-priced airfares and accommodation, to shopping, food, internet, and entertainment.
- CONSAL Web! - the official website of the Congress of Southeast Asian Librarians.
- Vietnam War Index [archive]
- Vietnam War Master Resource Guide [archive]
- Vietnam Vets, Vietnam War, History of Vietnam [archive]
- The My Lai Cases [archive]
- My Lai Massacre [archive]
- Freundschaftsgesellschaft Vietnam e.V. [archive]
- Gedenken [archive]
- AOvor Gericht [archive]
- HotSpots [archive]
- Adam das Irteil [archive]
- AO-Kongresshearing [archive]
- Vietnam [archive]
- Book brings rural pagodas to the masses - ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT - VietNamNet [archive]
- VietNamNet - News - eNewspaper
- Bertrand Russell Vietnam War Crimes Tribunal - Contents [archive]
- Studying the Vietnam War Online [archive]
- Recalling the Vietnam War [archive]
- Vietnam: Yesterday and Today [archive]
- Indochina The Trial of Henry Kissinger by Christopher Hitchins [archive]
- Pol Pot And Kissinger On war criminality and impunity by Edward S. Herman [archive]
- David Irving - Von Guernica bis Vietnam [archive]
- Urban Legends Reference Pages: Agent Orange [archive]
- Does a photograph show a Vietnamese child affected by Agent Orange?
- bernd greiner Vietnam - Literatur - Kultur - ZEIT online [archive]
- Vietnam - Der amerikanische Albtraum: Ein erschtterndes, ein aufrttelndes Buch: Grndlicher als jeder andere Historiker hat Bernd Greiner die Kriegsverbrechen der USA in Vietnam erforscht. , LITE,sachbuch,USA,Vietnam,Vietnamkrieg,Kriegsverbrechen,
- Vietnam - Literatur - Kultur - ZEIT online [archive]
- Vietnam - Der amerikanische Albtraum: Ein erschtterndes, ein aufrttelndes Buch: Grndlicher als jeder andere Historiker hat Bernd Greiner die Kriegsverbrechen der USA in Vietnam erforscht. , LITE,sachbuch,USA,Vietnam,Vietnamkrieg,Kriegsverbrechen,
- American Terrorism in Vietnam - The My Lai Massacre [archive]
- A la recherche de l'origine du peuple vietnamien [archive]
- "Pentagon Papers": Washington beichtet letzte Vietnam-Lgen - SPIEGEL ONLINE - Nachrichten - Politik [archive]
- Die US-Regierung lftet eines ihrer explosivsten Geheimnisse: Die "Pentagon Papers" zu den Hintergrnden des Vietnamkriegs werden voll freigegeben, 40 Jahre nach ihrem spektakulren Teilabdruck. Die USA feiern das als Akt der Offenheit - gehen aber gegen "Verrter"noch genauso rigoros vor wie damals.
- The girl in the photo from Vietnam War - CNN.com [archive]
- An iconic photo from the Vietnam War captured Kim Phuc in a little girl's moment of agony. Now she has learned to forgive.
- Vietnam 'napalm girl' Kim Phuc starts free course of laser treatment for her burns | Daily Mail Online [archive]
- Kim Phuc, who became famous for a horrific photo of her being burned in a napalm attack when she was nine, is now 52 and starting laser treatments that might finally end her chronic pain.
- Hope for Vietnam's children of the dump The CNN Freedom Project: Ending Modern-Day Slavery - CNN.com Blogs [archive]
- A school is offering new hopes and dreams to children living and working in Vietnam's garbage dumps -- and trying to prevent them becoming victims of human trafficking.
- Der Fluch von Agent Orange - News Ausland: Asien & Ozeanien - tagesanzeiger.ch [archive]
- 40 Jahre nach dem Ende des Vietnamkriegs warten Millionen Opfer des hochgiftigen Herbizids immer noch auf Gerechtigkeit. Die Wiedergutmachung der USA kommt nur langsam in Gang.
- A Look Back: SPLC Case Brought Justice to Vietnamese Fishermen Terrorized by Klan | Southern Poverty Law Center [archive]
- In 1981, a terror campaign was waged against Vietnamese fishermen in Galveston Bay. Armed Klansmen patrolled the waters off Texas. Threats were made. Crosses were burned. Boats were destroyed.
- Photos of people in Vietnam's most rural tribes - INSIDER [archive]
- Photographer Rhahn hopes to raise awareness about the rural tribes of Vietnam to help prevent them from vanishing.
- 4th Century Temples of Shiva, Krishna, Vishnu in MySon sanctuary, Vietnam Internet HINDU [archive]
- Ronald L. Haeberle, der Fotograf des Massakers von My Lai - NZZ.ch, 12.09.2012 [archive]
- Kaum ein anderes Ereignis hat whrend des Vietnamkrieges die Weltffentlichkeit so erschttert wie das Massaker in My Lai. Dass Bilder vom Kriegsverbrechen existieren, ist dem Gewissen und der Cleverness Ronald L. Haeberles zu verdanken. Der Fotograf trickste die US-Armee aus und seine Bilder gingen um die Welt.
- Southeast Asian Art Academic Programme, Alphawood, School of Arts, SOAS, University of London [archive]
- The homepage of the Alphawood Foundation funded Southeast Asian Art Academic Programme at SOAS
- Steel Pulse, Andy Brouwer, David Hinds, Selwyn Brown, Reggae, Ku Klux Klan, Handsworth Revolution, Basil Gabbidon, Donna Sterling, Grizzly Nisbett
- Der Fotograf Jimmy Nelson hat Indigene auf der ganzen Welt besucht, die in vlliger Abgeschiedenheit leben. Seine Portrts zeigen Kulturen fernab der Globalisierung.
- Cambodian Information Center (CIC) Homepage [archive]
- Cambodian Online's Home Page - Cambodia's Web Portal to the World [archive]
- Forums | Khmer Life | Cambodians' Lifestyle | Cambodian Community [archive]
- KhmerLife is a Cambodian social networking site that connects you and your friends together. Users can create personal profile, write blogs, browse the forum, and lookup photos.
- http://evisa.mfaic.gov.kh/index.php?language=de_DE [archive]
- ORIGINS OF ANGKOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROJECT [archive]
- The Digital Archive Of Cambodian Holocaust Survivors [archive]
- In the loving memories of the Cambodian people who died under the Khmer Rouge Regime from 1975 to 1979, we, Khmers and concerned friends of Cambodia, have formed an ad hoc group to establish the Digital Archive of Cambodian Holocaust Survivors.
- TIME Daily: The Legacy of Pol Pot: Page 3 [archive]
- The Legacy of Pol Pot: A photographic record of mass murder
- Book Review: Franois Bizot, The Gate [archive]
- Book Reviews: The Lost Executioner by Nic Dunlop [archive]
- Cambodia: Books and Temple Guides [archive]
- Books about Cambodia - An extensive list of Cambodia and Cambodia-related titles. Cambodia travel, history, politics, temple guides, arts and culture and more
- Cambodia: Volunteer Opportunities [archive]
- Cambodia: Fact sheet on Cambodia. Population, land area, major cities, form of government, working hours...
- Beauty and Darkness: Cambodia [archive]
- Information about Cambodia
- The Cambodian National Museum [archive]
- An article about the National Museum in Phnom Penh
- Khmer Institute [archive]
- Bayon Pearnik - Cambodia - Ngo Related Links [archive]
- Your One Stop Up-To-Date Travel & Tourism Guide to Cambodia. Written by people who live here.
- Cambodia: Book Reviews and Recommended Reading [archive]
- Recommended books and book reviews about Cambodia
- The Long Way to Cambodia [archive]
- Faine is moving to Cambodia, and she is taking the long way, via India, Nepal, Thailand, and wherever else feels appropriate. This will be her blog. Travel writing, food commentary, and idiot antics in foreign lands included.
- Cambodia Tales - Book Reviews by Andy Brouwer (unless stated) [archive]
- Cambodia Tales - Hot off the Press : Books on Cambodia [archive]
- Cambodia Tales - English Language Bibliography [archive]
- Cambodia Tales - Recommended Links & Visitors Comments [archive]
- Cambodia Tales - Loung Ung [archive]
- Cambodia Tales - The Killing Fields [archive]
- Welcome to The Friends of Khmer Culture [archive]
- Cambodia Tales 2000 - Angkor Conservation [archive]
- Cambodia Tales 1999 - Phnom Penh's wats and beyond [archive]
- 90 Days in Cambodia - 1998 [archive]
- Cambodia - Gregg Butensky [archive]
- Cambodia; Gregg Butensky
- Anjali House|Cambodia|Siem Reap [archive]
- Welcome to GHCC [archive]
- New Hope Cambodia - Charity Organization in Siem Reap [archive]
- New Hope Cambodia. opportunity through education
- APLE Cambodia [archive]
- Vegetarian restaurant with yoga meditation and monk chats in siem reap cambodia singing tree cafe [archive]
- Organic restaurant garden cafe with children playground gets top reviews for tasty wholesome food & offers travel information on eco tourism sustainable development projects & volunteer opportunities.
- Helping You to Help - ConCERT Cambodia ** Connecting Communities Environment & Responsible Tourism [archive]
- ConCERT is a Cambodian NGO focusing on Responsible Tourism. Our aim is to reduce poverty in Cambodia by bringing together Siem Reap organisations and non profits active in the community, and visitors who would like to support and help the people of Cambodia. How to help: Donations, Awareness, Sponsorships, Volunteer
- Khmer Rouge Division 703 [archive]
- Facing Death in Cambodia - Peter Maguire [archive]
- Yale > Cambodian Genocide Project > The CGP, 1994-2004 [archive]
- Early history of Cambodia [archive]
- Killing Fields: Der Vlkermord in Kambodscha - Politically Incorrect [archive]
- Welcome to Bridges Across Borders Cambodia! [archive]
- Welcome to Bridges Across Borders Southeast Asia!
- Talking to Cambodians in the Bronx About the Khmer Rouge Genocide Tribunal | VICE | United States [archive]
- Despite many Cambodian New Yorkers' connection to the tragedy, the diaspora here isn't too focused on the proceedings in their home country.
- Neues Virtual Reality-Video: Mit dem Hilfswerk Smiling Gecko in Kambodscha - Blick [archive]
- Blick besucht den Hannes Schmid in Kambodscha. Dort hat der Schweizer Fotoknstler sein Hilfswerk Smiling Gecko aufgebaut und verhilft notleidenden Menschen zu einem Leben weg von den Slums. Das 360-Grad-Video gibt in einen Einblick in dieses wunderschne, aber bettelarme Land.
- Observer review: The Gate by Franois Bizot | Books | The Guardian [archive]
- Bitterness propelled Franois Bizot to write an intense, dignified memoir of his time as a captive of the Khmer Rouge, The Gate
- Andy's Cambodia [archive]
- 1950: King Bhumibols Garden Of Smiles [archive]
- 1966: Holder Of The Kingdom, Strength Of The Land [archive]
- 1870S - 1890S - Thailand Forum [archive]
- Department of Asian Studies [archive]
- National Thai Studies Centre [archive]
- The Center for Southeast Asian Studies|University of Hawaii at Manoa [archive]
- MA South East Asian Studies: SOAS [archive]
- SOAS P/G programme description, MA South East Asian Studies.
- Asian Geographic Magazine Online-Asia Without Borders [archive]
- Asian Geographic is the only regional magazine that covers culture, social and geographical issue in a comprehensive, high-quality format. Every issue features about animals, the environment, cultures, history, and travel.
- Songkran - DAS ALTE SIAM [archive]
- Thailand - UNESCO World Heritage Centre [archive]
- UNESCO World Heritage Centre
- Buddhist Memoir in Thailand: A Lay Foreign Womans Experience Wandering Dhamma [archive]
- Siam Society [archive]
- Human Trafficking in Thailand, Bangkok, Thai [archive]
- Laos-Phone Savanh - Thai9-Adressen-Verzeichnis [archive]
- History, Culture and Society of Thailand. Cultural Organizations. [archive]
- Art Forms, Culture, Society and History of Thailand.
- Thailand (Tpfli) [archive]
- Chronik Thailands 1943 / B. E. 2486 [archive]
- Dcouvrir la Thalande ** Associations but humanitaire en Thalande [archive]
- La Thailande et sa culture, ses coutumes et son histoire. Bonnes adresses, lieux a visiter, questions pratiques, actualites et liens.
islam in SEA
- ISLAM IN CAMBODIA: Resurgence or Extremism? [archive]
- Islam paen matriarcal : le royaume du Champa (partie 1/3) - YouTube [archive]
- http://matricien.org/ [archive] Le Royaume de ChampÄ ou Tchampa est un tat de culture hindouiste et de langue malayo-polynsienne situ dans la zone centrale du Vit ...
- Islam matriarcal : le peuple Minangkabau d'Indonsie (1/2) - YouTube [archive]
- http://matricien.org/ [archive] Les Minangkabau sont un groupe d'environ 8 millions de personnes originaires des hauts plateaux de la province indonsienne de Sumatra ...
- Muslim mob violence threatens Burma - Atlas Shrugs [archive]
- Fact file: violation of human rights in Malaysia, of people of indian origin Hindu human rights [archive]
- http://refugeeresettlementwatch.wordpress.com/2008/04/05/put-rohingyas-on-deserted-island/ [archive]
- Malaysia demolishes century old Hindu temple [archive] Hindu temple demolished by Malay Authorities Kuala Lumpur. As hundreds of thousands of Hindu devotees cried and even begged to stop, the Malaysian Authorities demolished a Hindu temple dedicated to Devi on Tuesday.The temple was more than hundred years old.According to reports,the Hindu devotees including the priests were forced to stop the prayers when the Malaysian Authorities brutally began to demolish the Malaimel Sri Selva Kaliamman Temple, situated in the Malaysian capital Kuala
- Temple destruction a loss for Malaysian identity Malaysia Uncut [archive]
- Temple destruction a loss for Malaysian identity Malaysia Uncut [archive]
- Jihad Watch Philippines [archive]
- Ohio Attacker Was Wrong, Rohingyas Too Have A Bloody History To Answer For [archive] The facts of history are clear. The Rohingya side has a lot of violence, atrocities, and plunder to answer for.
islam in thailand
- Thailand Islamic Insurgency [archive]
- GlobalSecurity.org is the leading source for reliable military news and military information, directed by John Pike
- muslim hate in Thailand [archive]
- Jihad comes to Thailand [archive]
- Thailand Islamic Insurgency [archive]
- Islam Watch - "Thailand: Islamist Insurgency with No End" by Adrian Morgan [archive]
- Islam Watch - presenting cutting-edge news, freethinking essays, articles, debates and forum discussions on current affairs of Islam - terrorism, fundamentalism, apostasy (leaving Islam), women's rights, feminism, sharia (Islamic law)
- Whitewashing the Thai Jihad [archive]
- By Robert Spencer FrontPageMagazine.com [archive]
- History of the Jihad against Thailand (1441 - Ongoing) [archive]
- Thailand 2013: Muslim terrorists take grim toll [archive]
- Eskalierende Gewalt: In Thailand wchst die Zahl der Terroranschlge - SPIEGEL ONLINE [archive]
- Bangkok Post : Elderly Buddhist family slain [archive]
- Four Buddhist villagers have been shot dead and their houses set ablaze by suspected Muslim militants in Bacho district of Narathiwat.
- Stealth Jihad in Northern Thailand: North Thailand Buddhists protest monster mosque construction - Atlas Shrugs [archive]
- TIME Asia Magazine: Southern Front -- Oct. 18, 2004 [archive]
- TIME Asia Magazine: The Road to Jihad? -- May. 10, 2004 [archive]
- Hinduism in China: A forgotten history! [archive]
- Hinduism has no attested presence in modern mainland China, but archaeological evidence suggests presence of Hinduism in different provinces of medieval China. Hindu influences were also absorbed in the country through the spread of Buddhism over its history.
- Lord Shiva was worshipped in Ancient China - Sanskriti - Indian Culture [archive]
- Civilizations of China and India have a long history of interaction. The links between these two ancient civilizations were numerous and were sustained for thousands of years. The Chinese tell of a tradition in Schuking in which it is stated that the ancestors of the Chinese people came to China after crossing the high mountain ranges to the South.
- Behind Chinas Hindu temples, a forgotten history - The Hindu [archive]
- In and around Quanzhou, a bustling industrial city, there are shrines that historians believe may have been part of a network of more than a dozen Hindu temples and shrines
- Hinduism in China: Influence that goes back many millennia [archive]
- Hindu Wisdom - India and China [archive]
- https://indiafacts.org/forgotten-hindus-vietnams-champa-kingdom/ [archive]
- http://www.sanskritimagazine.com/indian-religions/hinduism/son-sanctuary-shiva-temple-central-vietnam/ [archive]
- https://www.myind.net/Home/viewArticle/hindu-legacy-vietnam [archive]
- Sideshow Kissinger, Nixon and the Destruction of Cambodia by William Shawcross [archive]
- 10 Top Anti-War/Protest Songs About the Vietnam War - Worldnews.com [archive]
- The War in Vietnam has long been the source of anti-war and protest songs. From Bob Dylan to the Beatles, a number of notable music artists penned tunes that criticized the United States involvement in perhaps the least supported war by the American public. The following are a sampling of the some of the best anti-war/protest songs that were released during that era. You can find all of these songs in digital form on iTunes, Amazon.com and Google Play with the exception of the last two songs
- Civoc! Society, Politics & Religion [archive]
- "Censoring the Internet in Thailand" by Jeffrey Race [archive]
- Visit Banteay Chhmar | Information about the 12th century Khmer temple, homestays and tourism activities in northwestern Cambodia [archive]
- Visit Banteay Chhmar - Information about the 12th century Khmer temple, homestays and tourism activities in northwestern Cambodia
- When Malays were Hindus and Buddhists were Indians - The Malaysian Insider [archive]
- Lawmaker: Cambodian workers at risk The CNN Freedom Project: Ending Modern-Day Slavery - CNN.com Blogs [archive]
- (CNN) -- A Cambodian opposition parliament member says labor recruitment agencies in her country are still sending domestic workers to Malaysia -- despite a recent ban on the practice -- because many government officials either own or have close ties to the companies.
- How did the Ramayana come to adorn the walls of Thailand's most revered Buddhist temple? [archive]
- All around the Temple of the Emerald Buddha are murals telling the story of Phra Rama. How did they get there?
- http://www.historicvietnam.com/ [archive]
- http://arstechnica.com/science/2016/07/how-archaeologists-found-the-lost-medieval-megacity-of-angkor/#p3 [archive]
- Top Ten Must-See Temples in Bali, Indonesia | Bali Temples, Bali Culture, Bali Religion [archive]
- A list of Bali's largest, most ornate, and most culturally significant temples - images, location and GPS coordinates included
- When Malays were Hindus and Buddhists were Indians - The Malaysian Insider [archive]
- http://www.digitaljournal.com/internet/thailand-digitizes-ancient-buddhist-manuscripts-for-online-use/article/461308#ixzz44RgI9HwH [archive]
- Kane, Pandurang Vaman: History of Dharmasastra: (ancient and mediaeval, religious and civil law) -- Poona : Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1962-1975
- Hindu-Buddhist Java and Southeast Asia [archive]
- Hindu-Kaharingan Tiwah ceremony in Borneo [archive]
- Hindu revival in Java [archive]
- A tribute to hinduism [archive]
- Hindu influence in Southeast Asia [archive]
- https://hindupost.in/history/rise-of-hindu-civilization-in-south-east-asia/ [archive]
- https://andrewmarshall.com/ [archive]