Shiv Sena (Marathi: शिवसेना) (IAST: Śiva Sēnā) (translation; Army of Shivaji), also known by the name Sena, is an Indian far-right regional political party. Its ideology is based on pro-Marathi ideology and Hindu nationalism (Hindutva), founded on 19 June 1966 by political cartoonist Bal Thackeray. The party originally emerged from a movement in Mumbai demanding preferential treatment for Maharashtrians over migrants to the city. It is currently headed by Thackeray's son, Uddhav Thackeray. Members of Shiv Sena are referred to as Shivsainiks.
Although the party's primary base is still in Maharashtra, it has tried to expand to a pan-Indian base. In the 1970s, it gradually moved from advocating a pro-Marathi ideology to one supporting a broader Hindu nationalist agenda, as it aligned itself with the Bharatiya Janata Party. The party started taking part in Mumbai (BMC) Municipal elections since its inception. In 1989, it entered an alliance with BJP for Lok Sabha as well as Maharashtra assembly elections, the latter of which was temporarily broken in October 2014 Assembly elections but it was undone soon and Shiv Sena became part of the BJP government in Maharashtra in December 2014. It has been a coalition partner in the National Democratic Alliance since 1998, including the Vajpayee Government during 1998–2004 and the present Narendra Modi Government.
It has been referred to as an "extremist", "chauvinist", as well as a "fascist party". Shiv Sena founder, Bal Thackeray, has taken comparisons with fascism as compliments as well as openly stated that he didnt believe in democracy. Shiv Sena and its supporters have been known to resort to violence with impunity. Shiv Sena has been blamed for the 1970 communal violence in Bhiwandi, the 1984 Bhiwandi riot and violence in the 1992-1993 Bombay riots.Other acts of violence attributed to Shivsainiks are the death of two persons, including a six month old baby, when Shivsainiks set fire to the Sunitidevi Singhania Hospital in Thane following the death of a Shiv Sena leader Anand Dighe. 80% of Shiv Sena MPs in the 15th Lok Sabha face criminal charges. 
Dean Nelson of the The Telegraph, while reporting on the removal of Rohinton Mistry's novel, Such a Long Journey, from the Mumbai University's literature syllabus following threats from Shiv Sena also noted that the party has a powerful hold over the Bollywood film industry.
- 1 History
- 2 Party structure
- 3 Chief Ministers
- 4 Shiv Sena ministers in central Government
- 5 Electoral performance
- 6 Activities and philosophy
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
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After the Independence of India in 1947, regional administrative divisions from the colonial era were gradually changed and states following linguistic borders were created. Within the Bombay Presidency, a massive popular struggle was launched for the creation of a state for the Marathi-speaking people. In 1960, the presidency was divided into two linguistic states - Gujarat and Maharashtra. Moreover, Marathi-speaking areas of the erstwhile Hyderabad state were joined with Maharashtra. Mumbai, in many ways the economic capital of India, became the state capital of Maharashtra. On one hand, people belonging to the Gujarati community owned the majority of the industry and trade enterprises in the city. On the other hand, there was a steady flow of South Indian migrants to the city who came to take many white-collar jobs.
In 1960 Bal Thackeray, a Mumbai-based cartoonist, began publishing the satirical cartoon weekly Marmik. Through this publication, he started disseminating anti-migrant sentiments. On 19 June 1966, Thackeray founded the Shiv Sena as a political organisation.
The Shiv Sena especially attracted a large number of unemployed Marathi youth, who were attracted by Thackeray's charged anti-migrant oratory. Shiv Sena cadres became involved in various attacks against the South Indian communities, vandalizing South Indian restaurants and pressuring employers to hire Marathis.
Alliance with the Bharatiya Janata Party
The party has been in coalition with the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) for Lok Sabha as well as Maharashtra Assembly since 1989. The two formed a government in Maharashtra between 1995-1999. The Sena was the opposition party in the state along with the BJP from 1999 to 2014. However, 25 years old alliance of Sena and BJP was broken in 2014 Maharashtra Assembly elections over seat sharing issue and both contested elections independently. After the BJP became largest party in the 2014 Assembly elections, Sena declared that it would play the role of opposition but, after further negotiations, agreed to join the government in Maharashtra. The Shiv Sena-BJP combine governs the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation. Traditionally the main strongholds of Shiv Sena have been Mumbai and the Konkan coastal areas. However, in the 2004 Lok Sabha elections the result was reversed. The Shiv Sena made inroads in the interior parts of the state, while suffering losses in Mumbai.
In July 2005, Former Maharashtra Chief Minister and Sena leader Narayan Rane was expelled from the party, which sparked internal conflict in the party. In December the same year Raj Thackeray, Bal Thackeray's nephew, left the party. Raj Thackeray later founded a new party, Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS). After the split, clashes have occurred between followers of the two Senas.
Although the MNS is a break-away group from the Shiv Sena, the party is still based in Bhumiputra ideology. When unveiling the party in an assembly at Shivaji Park he said, everyone is anxious to see what will happen to Hindutva and, "I shall elaborate on the party's stance on issues like Hindutva, its agenda for development of Maharashtra and the significance of the party flag colours at the 19 March public meeting."
Bal Thackeray's son Uddhav Thackeray became the party's leader in 2004, although Bal Thackeray continued to be an important figurehead. After the death of Bal Thackeray on 17 November 2012, Uddhav became the leader of party but refused to take the title "Shiv Sena Pramukh" (Shiv Sena Supremo).
As the Pramukh (Chief) of the party, Bal Thackeray took all major decisions while the activists and members of the Shiv Sena Shiv Sainiks carried out most of the party's grassroots work. During his last days, the day-to-day activities of the party were handled by his youngest son Uddhav Thackeray. Aditya Thackeray, son of Uddhav Thackeray, became the leader of the Yuva Sena, the Youth Wing of the party. After Bal Thackerey's death in 2012, the party was de facto led by Uddhav Thackeray.
The Sena Bhavan located in the Dadar locality in Mumbai has served as the Headquarters of the Sena since 1976. The Sena's shakhas (Branches) spread throughout the state of Maharashtra as well as in selected locations in other states, which decide on most of the local issues in their localities.
- Manohar Joshi - 14 March 1995 to 31 January 1999, was also Speaker of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament of India.
- Narayan Rane - 1 February 1999 to October 1999
Shiv Sena ministers in central Government
- Manohar Joshi: Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises, 13th Speaker of the Lok Sabha
- Anandrao Adsul: Ministry of Finance and Company Affairs
- Anant Geete: Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises, Minister of Power
|1971 Lok Sabha||5||227,468|||
|1980 Lok Sabha||2||129,351|||
|1989 Lok Sabha||3||1||339,426|||
|1989 Goa Assembly||6||4,960|||
|1991 Uttar Pradesh Assembly||14||1||45,426|||
|1991 Lok Sabha||22||4||2,208,712|||
|1993 Madhya Pradesh Assembly||88||75,783|||
|1996 Lok Sabha||132||15||4,989,994|||
|1996 Haryana Assembly||17||6,700|||
|1997 Punjab Assembly||3||719|||
|1998 Lok Sabha||79||6||6,528,566|||
|1998 Delhi Assembly||32||9,395|||
|1998 Himachal Pradesh Assembly||6||2,827|||
|1999 Lok Sabha||63||15||5,672,412|||
|1999 Goa Assembly||14||5,987|||
|2000 Orissa Assembly||16||18,794|||
|2001 Kerala Assembly||1||279|||
|2002 Goa Assembly||15|||
|2004 Lok Sabha||56||12||7,056,255|||
|2009 Lok Sabha||22||11||6,828,382|||
|2014 Lok Sabha||20||18||10,262,981|||
|1990 Maharashtra Assembly||183||52||47,33,834(16.39%)|
|1995 Maharashtra Assembly||169||73||6315493(16.39%)|
|1999 Maharashtra Assembly||169||69||(17.33%)|
|2004 Maharashtra Assembly||163||62||8351654 (19,97%)|
|2009 Maharashtra Assembly||160||45|
|2014 Maharashtra Assembly||286||63||10,235,972|
|2015 Bihar Assembly||80||0||2,11,131|||||
|2017 Goa Assembly||4|||
Activities and philosophy
As per the official stand of Shiv Sena, they are "committed to 80% social service and 20% politics".
The Sena says it has played a central role in the emancipation of 500,000 slum dwellers in the Dharavi area of Mumbai, the largest slum in Asia. However, the policy of giving free houses to slum dwellers has been controversial since it was introduced by the then Shiv Sena-BJP government.
In 1996, Shiv Sena organised the first and only live concert of American pop icon Michael Jackson in India to raise the funds for its business wing and to help create over two-hundred seventy thousand jobs for people of Maharashtra.
In December 2003, Shiv Sena activists damaged the cricket pitch of the Agra Sport Stadium which was supposed to host the cricket match between Pakistan and India. In April 2005, Bharatiya Vidyarthi Sena, the student wing of Shiv Sena, attempted to prevent the India-Pakistan One-day international match being held in New Delhi. The protester's spokesman demanded:
India should not play cricket with Pakistan till it hands over to India 20 terrorists, including Dawood Ibrahim, and closes down militant training camps running there.
On 20 November 2009, Shiv Sena activists attacked and vandalised the offices of Hindi and Marathi TV news channels IBN7 and IBN-Lokmat, located in Mumbai and Pune respectively. The Shivsainik slapped IBN7's senior editor Ravindra Ambekar and then attacked IBN-Lokmat's editor Nikhil Wagle. Shiv Sena attributed the attacks to the criticisms of Bal Thackeray by the news channel over his remarks on Sachin Tendulkar. Shiv Sena's Rajya Sabha MP Sanjay Raut described the attacks as "spontaneous". Shiv Sena spokespersons tried to justify the attacks and refused to apologize for their acts of violence.
Shiv Sena got an entry in Guinness Book of World Records in 2010 for "collecting maximum blood in a day". Shiv Sena organized a blood donation camp which collected over 24,000 bottles of blood in a single day. Later this world record was broken by a blood donation camp of HDFC Bank in 2014.
In October 2015, Shiv Sena issued threats which enforced a ban on a scheduled concert by Pakistani classic singer Ghulam Ali. The move was adopted to appease anti-Pakistan constituents to vote for Sena in coming elections. However, in 2015 Pakistan urged the international community to take note of the activities of Shiv Sena, while Shiv Sena claimed that criticism of Shiv Sena by Pakistan vindicates "our patriotism".
On 19 October 2015, Shiv Sena activists attacked and vandalised the office of BCCI to stop a meeting between PCB and BCCI officials. The activists shouted anti-Pakistan slogans and held posters that read 'Shahryar Khan go back', determined to stop Manohar from meeting his Pakistani counterpart.Shiv Sena has also threatened to stop Pakistan's Aleem Dar from officiating in the fifth and final ODI between India and South Africa.
In 2015 Shiv Sena announced 10,000 rupees help to each drought-affected farmer of Marathwada region, while they also announced 2 lakh rupees "reward" to Hindus family who had 5 children between 2010 and 2015 in Uttar Pradesh. As per Shiv Sena, the reason behind the "reward" was "decline in growth rate of Hindu population compared to Muslim population as per recent census".
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