Religion and environmentalism
Religion and environmentalism is an emerging interdisciplinary subfield in the academic disciplines of religious studies, religious ethics, the sociology of religion, and theology amongst others, with environmentalism and ecological principles as a primary focus.
Crisis of values
This subfield is founded on the understanding that, in the words of Iranian-American philosopher Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "the environmental crisis is fundamentally a crisis of values," and that religions, being a primary source of values in any culture, are thus implicated in the decisions humans make regarding the environment.
Burden of guilt
Historian Lynn White, Jr. first made the argument in a 1966 lecture before the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, subsequently published in the journal Science, that Western Christianity, having de-sacralized and instrumentalized nature to human ends, bears a substantial "burden of guilt" for the contemporary environmental crisis. White's essay stimulated a flurry of responses, ranging from defenses of Christianity to qualified admissions to complete agreement with his analysis.
Eastern religions and indigenous peoples
Some proposed that Eastern religions, as well as those of indigenous peoples, neo-pagans, and others, offered more eco-friendly worldviews than Christianity. A third, more obscure camp, argued that while White's theory was indeed correct, this was actually a benefit to society, and that thinning the populations of weaker plant and animal species via environmental destruction would lead to the evolution of stronger, more productive creatures. See Kaitiaki in Māori religion.
Religion and ecology
By the 1990s, many scholars of religion had entered the debate and begun to generate a substantial body of literature discussing and analyzing how nature is valued in the world's various religious systems. A landmark event was a series of ten conferences on Religion and Ecology organized by Yale University professors Mary Evelyn Tucker and John Grim and held at the Harvard University Center for the Study of World Religions from 1996 to 1998. More than 800 international scholars, religious leaders, and environmentalists participated in the conference series. The conferences concluded at the United Nations and at the American Museum of Natural History with more than 1,000 people in attendance. Papers from the conferences were published in a series of ten books (The Religions of the World and Ecology Book Series), one for each of the world's major religious traditions.
From these conferences, Tucker and Grim would form The Yale Forum on Religion and Ecology. The Forum has been instrumental in the creation of scholarship, in forming environmental policy, and in the greening of religion. In addition to their work with the Forum, Tucker and Grim's work continues in the Journey of the Universe film, book, and educational DVD series. It continues to be the largest international multireligious project of its kind.
An active Religion and Ecology group has been in existence within the American Academy of Religion since 1991, and an increasing number of universities in North America and around the world are now offering courses on religion and the environment. Recent scholarship on the field of religion and ecology can be found in the peer-reviewed academic journal Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology and in reference works such as the encyclopedia The Spirit of Sustainability.
Religion and nature
Another landmarks in the emerging field was the publication of the Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature in 2005, which was edited by Bron Taylor. Taylor also led the effort to form the International Society for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture, which was established in 2006, and began publishing the quarterly Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture in 2007.
Religions and the environment
The best asset religion offers is the moral framework by which practitioners must abide. Since many environmental problems have stemmed from human activity, it follows that religion might hold some solutions to mitigating destructive patterns. Buddhism idealizes and emphasizes interconnection, thereby creating a mindset that creates a productive and cooperative relationship between humans and nature. That all actions are based on the premise of interconnection makes the Buddhist mindset effective in cultivating modesty, compassion, and balance among followers, which may ultimately mitigate the harm done to the environment.
One benefit of the Buddhist interconnected mindset is the inevitable humility that ensues. Because humans are entwined with natural systems, damage done upon the Earth is also harm done to humans. This realization is quite modifying to a human race that historically pillages the Earth for individual benefit. When rational humans minimize the split between humanity and nature and bridge the gaps, only then will a mutual respect emerge in which all entities coexist rather than fight. Buddhism maintains that the reason for all suffering comes from attachment. When release from the tight grasp humanity has on individuality and separateness occurs, then oneness and interconnection is realized. So rather than emphasizing winners and losers, humanity will understand its existence within others; this results in a modesty that ends egoic mind.
Another benefit of Buddhist practice to the environment is the compassion that drives all thinking. When humans realize that they are all connected, harm done to another will never benefit the initiator. Therefore, peaceful wishes for everyone and everything will ultimately benefit the initiator. Through accepting that the web of life is connected—if one entity benefits, all benefit—then the prevailing mindset encourages peaceful actions all the time. If everything depends on everything else, then only beneficial events will make life situations better. Acceptance of compassion takes training and practice, which is also encouraged by Buddhist moral conduct in the form of mediation. This habitual striving for harmony and friendship among all beings creates a more perfect relationship between humanity and nature.
Lastly, Buddhist mindset relies on taking the middle road or striving for balance. Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, spent his life searching for the outlet of human suffering, eventually concluding that a balance must be established between self-destruction and self-indulgence. While modern, industrial humans emphasize economic and social aspects of life and lastly environmental aspects, this view is lopsided. When human preferences are leveled with environmental preferences—giving a voice to natural systems as well as human systems—then can balance and harmony be realized.
Therefore, using this idealized and disciplined framework that Buddhism has to offer can create lasting solutions to amending the broken relationship between humanity and nature. What ensues is an ethic, rather than a short-term policy or technological fix. When never-ending consumption patterns cease for the betterment of the world as a whole, then all systems will harmoniously interact in a non-abusive way. Without needing to adopt a new religion, just recognizing and accepting this mindset can help to heal the environmental injuries of the past.
Buddhists today are involved in spreading environmental awareness. In a meeting with the U.S Ambassador to the Republic of India Timothy J. Roemer, the Dalai Lama urged the U.S to engage China on climate change in Tibet. The Dalai Lama has also been part of a series on discussions organised by the Mind and Life Institute; a non-profit organisation that specializes on the relationship between science and Buddhism. The talks were partly about ecology, ethics and interdependence and issues on global warming were brought up 
Christianity has a historic concern for nature and the natural world. At the same time, ecological concerns operate in tension with anthropocentric values, such as the Biblical notion of human dominion over the Earth. (Gen 1:28) A broad range of Christian institutions are engaged in the environmental movement and contemporary environmental concerns.
Latter Day Saint movement
Mormon environmentalists find theological reasons for stewardship and conservationism through biblical and additional scriptural references including a passages from the Doctrine and Covenants: "And it pleaseth God that he hath given all these things unto man; for unto this end were they made to be used, with judgment, not to excess, neither by extortion" (D&C 59:20). The Latter Day Saint movement has a complex relationship with environmental concerns, involving not only the religion but politics and economics. In terms of environmentally friendly policies, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has a history of utilizing elements of conservationist policies for their meetinghouses. The church first placed solar panels on a church meetinghouse in the Tuamotu Islands in 2007. In 2010, the church unveiled five LEED certified meetinghouse prototypes that are that will be used as future meetinghouse designs around the world, the first one having been completed in 2010 in Farmington, Utah.
In Hinduism, practitioners and scholars find traditional approaches to the natural environment in such concepts as dharmic ethics or prakrti (material creation), the development of ayurveda, and readings of vedic literature. Hindu environmental activism also may be inspired by Gandhian philosophy and practical struggles, such as the Bishnoi community in Rajasthan  and Chipko resistance to forestry policies in Uttar Pradesh, India. Mahatma Gandhi played a major role in Indian environmentalism, and has been called the "father of Indian environmentalism". Gandhi's environmental thought parallels his social thoughts in that environmental sustainability and social inequalities should be managed in similar fashions. His non-violent teachings left a lasting impact, even agriculturally. Contemporary agrarian practices use the Bhagavad-Gita to establish practices that are deemed non-violent.
Through the tradition from the Quran and the prophets, the environment was made sacred. It is believed that God did not create the environment for a random reason, but rather a reflection of truth. One can gain profound knowledge from nature, thus human beings are to preserve it and look after it. Many chapters in the Quran refer to the beauties of nature, as well as the headings of many chapters indicating the importance of it, such as: "The Sun", "Dawn", and "Morning Hours." Thus, man is God's representative on this planet, if he is not charged with sustaining it, then at least he must not destroy it.
One of the primary figures of the religion and environmentalism movement, Iranian Muslim philosopher Seyyed Hossein Nasr, details the theme of "man's total disharmony with his environment." Nasr believes that to overcome the environmental crisis there needs to be a recognition that "the whole of nature is descended from higher spiritual realms." According to Nasr, the desacralization of the West has led to the increase of ideology promoting dominion over the earth and its resources, which is contrary to Islamic thinking. According to conservationist and scholar Jonathan Benthall, Islam offers a useful perspective of environmentalism through two primary themes. The first being the "glory and logic of the cosmos and of the cyclical regeneration of life" that is visible through Qur'anic passages, particularly ones referencing stewardship (khalifa). The second theme Benthall references is the very environmental basis from which Islam was founded, "an environment where natural recourses, especially water, fruit trees, and livestock have always had to be carefully conserved to ensure human survival, a concern which is inevitably reflected in the Qur'an."
Many Muslims have taken up climate activism. The Islamic Foundation for Ecology and Environmental Science is charity organization dedicated to offering up dialogues and encouraging activism that combines both Islamic perspectives and ecological sustainability. The organization's objectives are to generate a center for Islamic research that will also serve as a location with which to gather and experiment with new sustainable technologies.
In Islam, the concept of a hima or "inviolate zone" refers to a piece of land that has been set aside to prevent cultivation or any use other than spiritual purposes. This concept, in addition to alternative interpretations of Islamic teachings, such as sufism, are found to be helpful in developing an Islamic pro-environmental ethics.
In Judaism, the natural world plays a central role in Jewish law, literature, and liturgical and other practices. Within the diverse arena of Jewish thought, beliefs vary widely about the human relation to the environment, though the rabbinic tradition has put Judaism primarily on an anthropocentric trajectory. However, a few contemporary Jewish thinkers and rabbis in the US and Israel emphasized that a central belief in Judaism is that the Man (Ha Adam - האדם whose root comes from Haadama (earth) - האדמה, in Hebrew language), should keep the Earth in the same state as he received it from God, its eternal and actual "owner" (especially for the land of Israel), thus the people today should avoid polluting it and keep it clean for the future generations. According to this opinion, Judaism is clearly in line with the principles of environmental protection and sustainable development.
In Jewish law (halakhah), ecological concerns are reflected in Biblical protection for fruit trees, rules in the Mishnah against harming the public domain, Talmudic debate over noise and smoke damages, and contemporary responsa on agricultural pollution. In Conservative Judaism, there has been some attempt to adopt ecokashrut ideas[clarification needed] developed in the 1970s by Rabbi Zalman Schachter-Shalomi. In addition, Jewish activists have recruited principles of halakhah for environmental purposes, such as the injunction against unnecessary destruction, known as bal tashkhit.
In contemporary Jewish liturgy, ecological concerns have been promoted by adapting a kabbalistic ritual for the holiday of trees, Tu Bishvat. Biblical and rabbinic texts have been enlisted for prayers about the environment, especially in Orthodox Judaism and Jewish Renewal movements.
In the U.S., a diverse coalition of Jewish environmentalists undertakes both educational and policy advocacy on such issues as biodiversity and global warming. Jewish environmentalists are drawn from all branches of religious life, ranging from Rabbi Arthur Waskow to the Orthodox group Canfei Nesharim. In Israel, secular Jews have formed numerous governmental and non-governmental organizations to protect nature and reduce pollution. While many Israeli environmental organizations make limited use of Jewish religious teachings, a few do approach Israel's environmental problems from a Jewish standpoint, including the Heschel Center for Environmental Learning and Leadership, named after Abraham Joshua Heschel.
Taoism offers many ideas that are in line with environmentalism, such as wu wei, moderation, compassion and Taoist animism. Parallels were found between Taoism and deep ecology. Pioneer of environmentalism John Muir was called "the Taoist of the West". Rosenfeld wrote 'Taoism is environmentalism'.
In Jainism, the ancient and perhaps timeless philosophical concepts, like Parasparopagraho Jivanam, were more recently compiled into a Jain Declaration on Nature, which describes the religion's inherent biocentrism and deep ecology.
- Earth Day Sunday
- Buddhist environmental movement
- Environmental ethics
- Environmental racism
- Evangelical environmentalism
- Faith in Place
- Judaism and environmentalism
- Religion and peacebuilding
- Spiritual ecology
- Stewardship (theology)
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Religions of the World and Ecology Book Series:
- Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds. Mary Evelyn Tucker and Duncan Ryuken Williams, eds. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1997.
- Christianity and Ecology: Seeking the Well-being of Earth and Humans. Dieter T. Hessel and Rosemary Radford Ruether, eds. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2000.
- Confucianism and Ecology: The Interrelation of Heaven, Earth, and Humans. Mary Evelyn Tucker and John Berthrong, eds. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1998.
- Daoism and Ecology: Ways Within a Cosmic Landscape. N. J. Girardot, James Miller, and Liu Xiaogan, eds. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2001.
- Hinduism and Ecology: The Intersection of Earth, Sky, and Water. Christopher Key Chapple and Mary Evelyn Tucker, eds. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2000.
- Indigenous Traditions and Ecology: The Interbeing of Cosmology and Community. John A. Grim, ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2001.
- Islam and Ecology: A Bestowed Trust. Richard C. Foltz, Frederick M. Denny, Azizan Baharuddin, eds. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2003.
- Jainism and Ecology: Nonviolence in the Web of Life. Christopher Key Chapple, ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2002.
- Judaism and Ecology: Created World and Revealed Word. Hava Tirosh-Samuelson, ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2002.
- Shinto and Ecology. Rosemarie Bernard, ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2004.
- Tucker, Mary Evelyn. Worldly Wonder: Religions Enter Their Ecological Phase. Chicago: Open Court, 2003.
- Merritt, Jonathan (2010). Green like God: unlocking the divine plan for our planet. New York: FaithWords. ISBN 978-0-446-55725-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Man and Nature: The Spiritual Crisis in Modern Man. Rev. ed. Chicago, Ill.: Kazi Publishers, 1997 .
- Lynn White, Jr., "The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis," Science 155 (1967): 1203-1207.
- Richard Foltz, ed., Worldviews, Religion, and the Environment: A Global Anthology, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2002.
- Anand Veeraraj, Green History of Religion. Bangalore, India: Centre for Contemporary Christianity, 2006.
- Jens Koehrsen, "Religious Agency in Sustainability Transitions. Between Experimentation, Upscaling, and Regime Support." Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions. Vol. 27, 2018.
- Sarah McFarland Taylor, "What If Religions Had Ecologies?: The Case for Reinhabiting Religious Studies." Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture. Vol. 1.1 (Spring 2007).
- Bron Taylor, ed., Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature (2 volumes) London: Continuum International Publishing Group;
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- Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature, and Culture
- Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology
- https://web.archive.org/web/20100620194800/http://audubonmagazine.org/currents/currents1005.html Audubon (magazine)
- Buddhism, Virtue and Environment. David Edward, Edward Cooper, and S.P James. Ashgate Publishing, 2005.
- Dhrama Rain: Sources of Buddhist Environmentalism. Stephanie Kaza and Kenneth Kraft, eds. Shambhala, 2000.
- The Ethics of Nature. Celia E. Deane-Drummond John Wiley & Sons, 2004.
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