Proto-Indo-European religion

From Dharmapedia Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Lua error in Module:Effective_protection_level at line 16: attempt to index field 'FlaggedRevs' (a nil value).

The religion of the Proto-Indo-Europeans is not directly attested, but reconstruction has been attempted based on the existence of similarities among the deities, religious practices and mythologies of the Indo-European peoples. The hypothesized reconstructions below are based on linguistic evidence using the comparative method. Archaeological evidence is difficult to match to any specific culture in the period of early Indo-European culture in the Chalcolithic.[1] Other approaches to Indo-European mythology are possible, such as the trifunctional hypothesis of Georges Dumézil.[2]

Pantheon[edit]

Linguists are able to reconstruct the names of some deities in the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) from many types of sources. Some of the proposed deity names are more readily accepted among scholars than others.[3]

The term for "a god" was *deiwos,[4] reflected in Hittite, sius; Latin, deus, divus; Sanskrit, deva; Avestan, daeva (later, Persian, div); Welsh, duw; Irish, dia; Old Norse, tívurr; Lithuanian, Dievas; Latvian, Dievs.[5]

Heavenly deities[edit]

The supreme ruler of the Proto-Indo-European pantheon was the god *Dyḗus Pḥɑtḗr, whose name literally means "Sky Father." He is believed to have been worshipped as the god of the daylit skies. He is, by far, the most well-attested of all the Proto-Indo-European deities. The Greek god Zeus, the Roman god Jupiter, and the Illyrian god Dei-Pátrous all appear as the head gods of their respective pantheons. The Norse god Týr, however, seems to have been demoted to the role of a minor war-deity. *Dyḗus Pḥɑtḗr is also attested in the Rigveda as Dyáus Pitā, a minor ancestor figure mentioned in only a few hymns. The names of the Latvian god Dievs and the Hittite god Attas Isanus do not preserve the exact literal translation of the name *Dyḗus Pḥɑtḗr, but do preserve the general meaning of it.[6]

File:Eos chariot 430-420 BC Staatliche Antikensammlungen.jpg
Eos in her chariot flying over the sea, red-figure krater from South Italy, 430–420 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen

*Hɑéusōs has been reconstructed as the Proto-Indo-European goddess of the dawn. Derivatives of her found throughout various Indo-European mythologies include the Greek goddess Eos, the Roman goddess Aurōra, the Vedic goddess Uṣás, and the Lithuanian goddess Auštrine.[7] The form Arap Ushas appears in Albanian folklore, but as a name for the Moon, not the dawn. An extension of the name may have been *H2eust(e)ro,[8] since the form *as-t-r with an intrusive -t- between s and r occurs in some northern dialects.[9][10] Anatolian dialects: Estan, Istanus, Istara; Greek, Hestia, goddess of the hearth; Latin Vesta, goddess of the hearth; in Armenian as Astghik, a star goddess; possibly also in Germanic mythology as Ēostre or Ostara; and Baltic, Austija.[11]

*Seh2ul and *Meh1not are reconstructed as the Proto-Indo-European goddess of the Sun and god of the Moon respectively. *Seh2ul is reconstructed based off the Greek god Helios, the Roman god Sol, the Celtic goddess Sul/Suil, the Norse goddess Sól, the Germanic goddess *Sowilō, the Celtic Solntse, the Hittite goddess "UTU-liya",[12] and the Vedic god Surya.[13] *Meh1not is reconstructed based off the Norse god Máni, the Hittite god Myesyats,[12] and the Lithuanian god *Meno, or Mėnuo (Mėnulis).[14] They are often seen as the twin children of various deities, but in fact the sun and moon were deified several times and are often found in competing forms within the same language. The usual scheme is that one of these celestial deities is male and the other female, though the exact gender of the Sun or Moon tends to vary among subsequent Indo-European mythologies. The original Indo-European solar deity appears to have been female,[15] a characteristic not only supported by the higher number of sun goddesses in subsequent derivations (feminine Sól, Saule, Sulis, Solntse—not directly attested as a goddess, but feminine in gender—Étaín, Grían, Aimend, Áine and Catha versus masculine Helios, Surya, Savitr, Usil and Sol; Hvare-khshaeta is of neutral gender), but also by vestiges in mythologies with male solar deities (Usil in Etruscan art is depicted occasionally as a goddess, while solar characteristics in Athena and Helen of Troy still remain in Greek mythology). The original Indo-European lunar deity appears to have been masculine,[15] with feminine lunar deities like Selene, Minerva and Luna being a development exclusive to the eastern Mediterranean. Even in these traditions, remnants of male lunar deities, like Menelaus, remain.

Divine twins[edit]

The Proto-Indo-European Creation myth seems to have involved two key figures: *Manu- ("Man"; Indic Manu; Germanic Mannus) and *Yemo- ("Twin"; Indic Yama; Germanic Ymir), his twin brother. Reflexes of these two figures usually fulfill the respective roles of founder of the human race and first human to die.[16][17]

File:Dioskouroi Met L.2008.18.1-2 n03.jpg
Pair of Roman statuettes (3rd century AD) depicting the Dioscuri as horsemen, with their characteristic skullcaps (Metropolitan Museum of Art)

The Horse Twins are a set of twin brothers found throughout nearly every Indo-European pantheon who usually have a name that means 'horse' *ekwa-, but the names are not always cognate and no Proto-indo-European name for them can be reconstructed.[18] In most Indo-European pantheons, the Horse Twins are brothers of the Sun Maiden or Dawn goddess and sons of the sky god. They are reconstructed based off the Vedic Ashvins, the Lithuanian Ašvieniai, the Latvian Dieva deli, the Greek Dioskouroi (Kastor and Polydeukes), the Roman Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux), the Irish twins of Macha, the Old English Hengist and Horsa (whose names mean "horse" and "stallion"), the Slavic Lel and Polel (possibly Christianized in Albanian as Sts. Flori and Lori) and possibly Old Norse Sleipnir, the eight-legged horse born of Loki. The horse twins may be based on the morning and evening star (the planet Venus) and they often have stories about them in which they "accompany" the Sun goddess, because of the close orbit of the planet Venus to the sun (JIES 10, 1&2, pp. 137–166, Michael Shapiro, who references D. Ward, The Divine Twins, Folklore Studies, No. 19, Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley, 1968).

Storm deities[edit]

*Perkwunos has been reconstructed as the Proto-Indo-European god of lightning and storms. His name literally means "The Striker." He is reconstructed based off the Norse goddess Fjǫrgyn (the mother of Thor), the Lithuanian god Perkūnas, and the Slavic god Perúnú. The Vedic god Parjánya may also be related, but his possible connection to *Perkwunos is still under dispute.[19] The name of *Perkwunos may also be attested in Greek as κεραυνός (Keraunós), an epithet of the god Zeus meaning "thunder-shaker."[20]

Water deities[edit]

Some authors have proposed *Neptonos or *H2epom Nepōts as the Proto-Indo-European god of the waters. The name literally means "Grandson [or Nephew] of the Waters." He has been reconstructed based off the Vedic god Apám Nápát, the Roman god Neptūnus, and the Old Irish god Nechtain. Although such a god has been solidly reconstructed in Proto-Indo-Iranian religion, Mallory and Adams nonetheless still reject him as a Proto-Indo-European deity on linguistic grounds.[21]

A river goddess *Dehɑnu- has been proposed based off the Vedic goddess Dānu, the Irish goddess Danu, the Welsh goddess Don and the names of the rivers Danube, Don, Dnieper, and Dniester. Mallory and Adams, however, dismiss this reconstruction, commenting that it does not have any evidence to support it.[22]

Some have also proposed the reconstruction of a sea god named *Trihɑtōn based off the Greek god Triton and the Old Irish word trïath, meaning "sea." Mallory and Adams reject this reconstruction as having no basis, asserting that the "lexical correspondence is only just possible and with no evidence of a cognate sea god in Irish."[22]

Nature deities[edit]

File:God of Etang sur Arroux possible depiction of Cernunnos.jpg
God of Etang-sur-Arroux, a possible depiction of the Celtic god Cernunnos from France bearing many iconographic similarities to the god on the Pashupati seal from northern India

*Péh2usōn, a pastoral deity, is reconstructed based off the Greek god Pan and the Vedic god Pūshān. Both deities are closely affiliated with goats and were worshipped as pastoral deities. The minor discrepancies between the two deities can be easily explained by the possibility that many attributes originally associated with Pan may have been transferred over to his father Hermes.[23] The association between Pan and Pūshān was first identified in 1924 by the German scholar Hermann Collitz.[24][25]

In 1855, Adalbert Kuhn suggested that the Proto-Indo-Europeans may have believed in a set of helper deities, whom he reconstructed based off the Germanic elves and the Hindu rhibus.[26][27] Though this proposal is often mentioned in academic writings, very few scholars actually accept it.[28] There may also have been a female cognate akin to the Greco-Roman nymphs, Slavic vilas, the Huldra of Germanic folklore, and the Hindu Apsaras.[29]

Societal deities[edit]

It is highly probably that the Proto-Indo-Europeans also had three fate goddesses akin to the Norse Norns, the Greek Moirai, Roman Parcae, the Slavic Sudjenice, the Romanian Ursitoare, and the Lithuanian Deivės Valdytojos. Celtic religion is also rife with triple goddesses, such as the Gaulish Matrones and the Morrigan of Ireland, and sometimes triplicate gods as well, but they are not always associated with fate. See also Triple deities.[citation needed]

Some scholars have proposed a war god *Māwort- based off the Roman god Mars and the Vedic Marutás, companions of the war-god Indra. Mallory and Adams, however, reject this reconstruction on linguistic grounds.[30]

Mythology[edit]

Dragon or serpent[edit]

File:Museum of Anatolian Civilizations082 kopie1jpg.jpg
The Hittite god Tarhunt, followed by his son Sarruma, kills the dragon Illuyanka (Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara, Turkey)

One common myth among almost all Indo-European mythologies is a battle ending with a hero or god slaying a serpent or dragon of some sort.[31] Although the details of story often vary widely, in all iterations, several features often remain remarkably the same. In all iterations of the story, the serpent is always associated with water in some way. The hero of the story is usually a thunder-god or a hero who is somehow associated with thunder. The serpent is usually multi-headed, or else "multiple" in some other way.[32]

The earliest attested of these stories is the legend from Hittite mythology in which the storm god Tarhunt slays the giant serpent Illuyanka.[33] Next oldest is the account recorded in the Rigveda in which the god Indra slays the multi-headed serpent Vritra, which had been causing a draught.[34] In the Bhagavata Purana, Krishna slays the serpent Kāliyā.

Several different variations of the story are also found in Greek mythology as well. The story is attested in the legend of Zeus slaying the hundred-headed Typhon from Hesiod's Theogony, but it is also in the myths of the slaying of the nine-headed Lernean Hydra by Heracles and the slaying of Python by Apollo.[32] The story of Heracles's theft of the cattle of Geryon is probably also related.[32] Although Heracles is not usually thought of as a storm deity in the conventional sense, he bears many attributes held by other Indo-European storm deities, including physical strength and a knack for violence and gluttony.[32]

The original Proto-Indo-European myth is also reflected in Germanic mythology. In Norse mythology, Thor, the god of thunder, slays the giant serpent Jörmungandr, which lived in the waters surrounding the realm of Midgard.[35] Other dragon-slaying myths are also found in the Germanic tradition. In the Völsunga saga, Sigurd slays the dragon Fafnir and, in Beowulf, the eponymous hero slays a dragon of his own.

Reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European dragon-slaying myth are found throughout other branches of the language family as well. In Zoroastrianism and Persian mythology, Fereydun, and later Garshasp, slays Zahhak.[36] In Slavic mythology, Perun, the god of storms, slays Veles and Dobrynya Nikitich slays the three-headed dragon Zmey. In Armenian mythology, the god Vahagn slays the dragon Vishap.[37] In Romanian folklore, Făt-Frumos slays the fire-spitting monster Zmeu. In Celtic mythology, Dian Cecht slays Meichi.

The myth is believed to have symbolized a clash between forces of order and chaos. In every version of the story, the god or hero always wins (except in some mythologies, such as the Norse Ragnarök myth in which both die). The Proto-Indo-European name for the serpent may have been *kʷr̥mis, or some name cognate with *Varuna/Werunos or the root *Wel/Vel- (VS Varuna, who is associated with the serpentine naga, Vala and Vṛtra, Slavic Veles, Baltic velnias), or "serpent" (Hittite Illuyanka, VS Ahis, Iranian azhi, Greek ophis and Ophion, and Latin anguis), or the root *dheubh- (Greek Typhon and Python).

Sun[edit]

File:Shri Surya Bhagvan bazaar art, c.1940's.jpg
Modern illustration of Surya, god of the Sun in Hinduism

Related to the dragon-slaying myth is the "Sun in the rock" myth, in which the Sun is imprisoned within a rock, but is set free by a heroic warrior deity, who splits open the rock, allowing her to escape. Such a myth is preserved in the Rigvedic story of Vala, where Ushas and the cows, stolen by the Panis were imprisoned. It may also be connected with other myths of abductions into the netherworld such as the mysteries of Eleusis connected with Persephone, Dionysus and Triptolemus.[citation needed]

The Greek Sun-god Helios, the Hindu god Surya, and the Germanic goddess Sól are all represented as riding in chariots pulled by white horses. The chariot, however, was not invented until after the Indo-Europeans had already split into separate linguistic branches.[citation needed]

The myth of the Sun and Moon being swallowed by some kind of predator is also found throughout multiple Indo-European language groups. In Norse mythology, the Sun goddess (Sól) and Moon god (Máni) are swallowed by the demon wolves Sköll and Hati Hróðvitnisson.[38] In Hinduism, the Sun god (Surya) and Moon god (Chandra) are swallowed by the demon serpents Rahu and Ketu, resulting in eclipses.[39]

Brothers[edit]

The analysis of different Indo-European tales indicates that the Proto-Indo-Europeans believed there were two progenitors of mankind: *Manu- ("Man") and *Yemo- ("Twin"), his twin brother. A reconstructed creation myth involving the two is given by David W. Anthony, attributed in part to Bruce Lincoln:[40] Manu and Yemo traverse the cosmos, accompanied by the primordial cow, and finally decide to create the world. To do so, Manu sacrifices either Yemo or the cow, and with help from the sky father, the storm god and the divine twins, forges the earth from the remains. Manu thus becomes the first priest and establishes the practice of sacrifice. The sky gods then present cattle to the third man, *Trito, who loses it to the three-headed serpent *Ngwhi, but eventually overcomes this monster either alone or aided by the sky father. Trito is now the first warrior and ensures that the cycle of mutual giving between gods and humans may continue.

Reflexes of *Manu include Indic Manu, Germanic Mannus; of Yemo, Indic Yama, Avestan Yima, Norse Ymir, possibly Roman Remus (< earlier Italic *iemus).[40]

There are almost no mythological tales from Rome, but the early "history" of Rome is recognized as being an historicized version of various old myths. Romulus and Remus were twin brothers. They both have stories in which they are killed.

  • Remus is killed by his brother Romulus at the foundation of Rome;
  • Romulus is dismembered by the senators, "[…] there were some who secretly hinted that he had been torn limb from limb by the senators […]" There is no world making here, but Romulus is the eponymous ancestor of the Romans, and the founder of Rome.[41]
  • Gemini is the actual Latin word for 'twins' though it usually applies to Castor and Pollux, see Horse Twins in the Pantheon section. They were worshipped all over the Roman world.[clarification needed]

The Germanic languages have information about both Ymir and Mannus (cognates of *Yemo- and *Manu- respectively), but they never appear in the same myth, rather they appear only in myths widely separated in both time and circumstances.

  • A Roman text (dated CE 98) tells that Mannus, the son of Tuisto, was the ancestor of the Germanic people, according to Tacitus, writing in Latin, in Germania 2. We never see this being again, but the name Allemagne is interpreted (perhaps by folk etymology) as "all-men" the name for themselves.

Fire in water[edit]

Another important possible myth is the myth of the fire in the waters, a myth which centers around the possible deity *H2epom Nepōts, a fiery deity who dwells in water.[42] In the Rigveda, the god Apám Nápát is envisioned as a form of fire residing in the waters.[43] In Celtic mythology, a well belonging to the god Nechtain is said to blind all those who gaze into it.[42] In an old Armenian poem, a small reed in the middle of the sea spontaneously catches fire and the hero Vahagn springs forth from it with fiery hair and a fiery beard and eyes that blaze as suns.[44] In a ninth-century Norwegian poem by the poet Thiodolf, the name sǣvar niþr, meaning "grandson of the sea," is used as a kenning for fire.[45] Even the Greek tradition contains possible allusions to the myth of a fire-god dwelling deep beneath the sea. The phrase "νέποδες καλῆς Ἁλοσύδνης," meaning "descendants of the beautiful seas," is used in The Odyssey 4.404 as an epithet for the seals of Proteus.[44]

Culture heros[edit]

Culture deities occur in many Indo-European cultures. Examples include the Greek Prometheus, the Norse Loki, and the Ossetian Pkharmat.[46] The similarities between the three deities are striking. Prometheus and Pkharmat both steal fire from the gods and give it to humanity. All three deities are punished for their actions by being chained and tortured by some kind of animal. For Prometheus[47] and Pkharmat,[48] this animal is a bird (an eagle for Prometheus and a falcon for Pkharmat), which comes every afternoon to devour their livers. For Loki, this animal is a venomous serpent, which drips its poison onto his face.[49]

Flood myth[edit]

The story of a global flood is a widespread myth, found throughout Indo-European cultures and other cultures as well (for example, Noah and Utnapishtim myths). In Hindu mythology, the Matsya Avatar of Vishnu warns the first man, Manu of the impending flood. Manu builds a boat and survives the flood due to Matsya's assistance.[50] In Greek mythology, Deucalion and his family survive the flood after being warned to build a boat by Deucalion's father Prometheus. Deucalion's sons Aeolus, Ion, and Dorus become the founders of the three main lines of modern Greeks.[51]

Cosmology[edit]

Underworld[edit]

Most Indo-European traditions contain some kind of Underworld or Afterlife. It is possible that the Proto-Indo-Europeans may have believed that, in order to reach the Underworld, one needed to cross a river, similar to the Greek concept of the river Styx, guided by an old man (*ĝerhɑont-).[52] It is also possible they may have believed that the Underworld was guarded by some kind of watchdog, similar to the Greek Cerberus, the Hindu Śárvara, or the Norse Garmr.[52]

World tree and serpent[edit]

The Proto-Indo-Europeans may have believed in some kind of world tree.[53] It is also possible that they may have believed that this tree was either guarded by or under constant attack from some kind of dragon or serpent.[53] In Norse mythology, the world ash tree Yggdrasil is tended by the three Norns while the dragon Nidhogg gnaws at its roots.[53] In Greek mythology, the tree of the golden apples in the Garden of the Hesperides is tended by the three Hesperides and guarded by the hundred-headed dragon Ladon.[54] In Indo-Iranian texts, there is a mythical tree dripping with Soma, the immortal drink of the gods and, in later Pahlavi sources, an evil lizard is said to lurk at the bottom of it.[53]

Ritual and sacredness[edit]

File:Disarblot by Malmström.jpg
The Dísablót, by August Malmström, a late nineteenth-century illustration showing a Germanic blót
File:Demeter1.jpg
Ancient Greek vase red-figure pot painting depicting two men sacrificing a pig to Demeter

Émile Benveniste states that "there is no common [IE] term to designate religion itself, or cult, or the priest, not even one of the personal gods".[55] There are, however, terms denoting ritual practice reconstructed in Indo-Iranian religion which have root cognates in other branches, hinting at common PIE concepts. Thus, the stem *hrta-, usually translated as "(cosmic) order" (Vedic ṛta and Iranian arta[56]). Benveniste states, "We have here one of the cardinal notions of the legal world of the Indo-Europeans to say nothing of their religious and moral ideas" (pp. 379–381). He also adds that an abstract suffix -tu formed the Vedic stem ṛtu-, Avestan ratu- which designated order, particularly in the seasons and periods of time. The same root and suffix, but a different formation, appears in Latin rītus "rite".

The following list of reconstructed PIE religious terms is based on EIEC[57] and Lyle Campbell[58]

  • *isH1roholy
  • *sakro-sacred’ (derived from *sak- ‘to sanctify’) [p. 493, EIEC]
  • *k̂wen(to)- ‘holy’ [p. 493, EIEC]
  • *noibho- ‘holy’ [p. 493, EIEC]
  • *prek̂- ‘pray’
  • *meldh- ‘pray’ [p. 449, EIEC]
  • *gwhedh- ‘pray’ [p. 449, EIEC]
  • *H1wegwh- ‘speak solemnly’; [*uegwh-, p. 449, EIEC]
  • *ĝheuHx- ‘call, invoke’ (perhaps English god < *ĝhu-to- from ‘that which is invoked’, but derivation from *ĝhu-to-libated’ from *ĝheu- ‘libate, pour’ is also possible). [p. 89, EIEC]
  • *kowH1ei- ‘priest, seer/poet’ [p. 451, EIEC]
  • *Hxiaĝ- ‘worship’
  • *weik-consecrate’ (earlier meaning perhaps ‘to separate’), [*ueik-, p. 493, EIEC; p. 29, Grimm[59]]
  • *sep- ‘handle reverently’ [p. 450, EIEC]
  • *spend- ‘libate’
  • *ĝheu- ‘libate’ and *ĝheu-mn̥ ‘libation’
  • *dapnom ‘sacrificial meal’ from *dap-, [p. 496, EIEC; p. 484, Benveniste]
  • *tolko/eH2- ‘meal’ (at least late PIE) [p. 496, EIEC]
  • *nemos ‘sacred grove’ (used in west and centre of the IE world)
  • *werbh- ‘sacred enclosure’

Benveniste also posits the existence of a dual conception of sacredness, divided into a positive side, the intrinsic, otherworldly power of deities; and a negative side, sacredness of objects in the world that make them taboo for humans. This opposition is found in word pairs such as the Latin sacer/sanctus and Greek ἅγιος/ἱερός.[60]

Development[edit]

File:IE expansion.png
Scheme of Indo-European migrations from ca. 4000 to 1000 BC according to the Kurgan hypothesis.

The various Indo-European daughter-cultures continued elements of PIE religion, syncretizing it with innovations and foreign elements, notably ancient Near Eastern and Dravidian elements, the reforms of Zoroaster and Buddha, and the spread of Christianity and Islam.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006). The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199296685. 
  2. Mythe et Épopée I, II, III, by G. Dumézil, Gallimard, 1995.
  3. In order to present a consistent notation, the reconstructed forms used here are cited from Mallory & Adams 2006. For further explanation of the laryngeals – <h1>, <h2>, and <h3> – see the Laryngeal theory article.
  4. Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 408
  5. Indo-European *Deiwos and Related Words by Grace Sturtevant Hopkins (Language Dissertations published by the Linguistic Society of America, Number XII, December 1932)
  6. Mallory & Adams 2006, pp. 409 and 431.
  7. Mallory & Adams 2006, pp. 410 and 432.
  8. Mallory & Adams 2006, pp. 294, 301.
  9. Mallory & Adams 2006, pp. 702, 780.
  10. Gamkrelidze & Ivanov 1995.
  11. Noyer, Rolf. "PIE Deities and the Sacred: Proto-Indo-European Language and Society" (PDF). University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Gamkrelidze & Ivanov 1995, p. 760
  13. Mallory, J.P.; Douglas Q. Adams (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5. 
  14. Mallory, J.P.; Douglas Q. Adams (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. p. 385. ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Dexter, Miriam Robbins. Proto-Indo-European Sun Maidens and Gods of the Moon. Mankind Quarterly 25:1 & 2 (Fall/Winter, 1984), pp. 137–144.
  16. Mallory 1987, p. 140.
  17. Lincoln 1991.
  18. Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 432.
  19. Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D.Q. (2006). The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 410 and 433. ISBN 978-0-19-929668-2. 
  20. Frisk, Greek Etymological Dictionary [1][dead link]
  21. Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D.Q. (2006). The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 410. ISBN 978-0-19-929668-2. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D.Q. (2006). The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 434. ISBN 978-0-19-929668-2. 
  23. Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D.Q. (2006). The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 411 and 434. ISBN 978-0-19-929668-2. 
  24. H. Collitz, "Wodan, Hermes und Pushan," Festskrift tillägnad Hugo Pipping pȧ hans sextioȧrsdag den 5 November 1924 1924, pp 574–587.
  25. R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 1149.
  26. Kuhn, Adalbert (1855). Die sprachvergleichung und die urgeschichte der indogermanischen völker. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung. 4. , "Zu diesen ṛbhu, alba.. stellt sich nun aber entschieden das ahd. alp, ags. älf, altn . âlfr"
  27. in K. Z., p.110, Schrader, Otto (1890). Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan Peoples. Frank Byron Jevons (tr.). Charles Griffin & Company,. p. 163. .
  28. Hall, Alaric (2007). Elves in Anglo-Saxon England: Matters of Belief, Health, Gender and Identity (PDF). Boydell Press. ISBN 1843832941. 
  29. West 2007, pp. 284–292.
  30. Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D.Q. (2006). The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 410–411. ISBN 978-0-19-929668-2. 
  31. Watkins 1995.
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 West 2007, pp. 255-259.
  33. Philo Hendrik Jan Houwink Ten Cate: The Luwian Population Groups of Lycia and Cilicia Aspera During the Hellenistic Period. E. J. Brill, Leiden 1961, pp. 203-220.
  34. West 2007, pp. 255-257.
  35. West 2007, p. 259.
  36. "IRAN iv. MYTHS AND LEGENDS – Encyclopaedia Iranica". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  37. Kurkjian 1958.
  38. Sturluson 2006, p. 164.
  39. Charles Hartley. "Rahu & Ketu". Hartwick college, New York, USA. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  40. 40.0 40.1 Anthony, David W. (2010). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton University Press. pp. 134–135. 
  41. One of the original sources for the stories of Romulus and Remus is Livy's History of Rome, vol. 1, parts iv–vii and xvi. This has been published in an Everyman edition, translated by W. M. Roberts, E. P. Dutton & Co., New York 1912.
  42. 42.0 42.1 Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 438.
  43. West 2007, p. 270.
  44. 44.0 44.1 West 2007, p. 271.
  45. West 2007, p. 272.
  46. Lecha Ilyasov. The Diversity of the Chechen Culture: From Historical Roots to the Present. ISBN 978-5-904549-02-2
  47. Hesiod, Theogony 590-93.
  48. Jaimoukha, Amjad M. (2005-03-01). The Chechens: a handbook (1st ed.). Routledge. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-415-32328-4. Retrieved 2009-08-14. 
  49. Larrington (1999), pp. 95–96.
  50. Schulman 1980, pp. 55-76.
  51. Pleins 2010, p. 110.
  52. 52.0 52.1 Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 439.
  53. 53.0 53.1 53.2 53.3 West 2007, p. 346.
  54. West 2007, pp. 346-347.
  55. Indo-European Language and Society by Émile Benveniste (transl. by Elizabeth Palmer, pp. 445–6; orig. title Le vocabulaire des institutions Indo-Européennes, 1969), University of Miami Press, Coral Gables, Florida, 1973.
  56. Gamkrelidze and Ivanov 1995 p. 810; c.f. Hittite ara, UL ara, DAra (a Hittite goddess).
  57. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, J.P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, ed., Fitzroy Dearborn, London, 1997.
  58. Historical Linguistics, An Introduction, by Lyle Campbell, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 2004, pp. 391-392; see also Gamkrelidze and Ivanov 1995, pp. 832-7, ritual language.
  59. Deutsche Mythologie by Jacob Grimm, (English title Teutonic Mythology, transl. by Stallybrass), George Bell and Sons, London, 1883.
  60. Polomé, Edgar C.; Mallory, J. P. (1997). "Sacred". In Mallory, J. P.; Adams, Douglas Q. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Taylor & Francis. pp. 493–494. 

Further reading[edit]