Indraprastha

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Template:Short description Indraprastha (lit. "Plain of Indra"[1] or "City of Indra") is mentioned in ancient Indian literature as a city of the Kuru Kingdom. It was the capital of the kingdom led by the Pandavas mentioned in Mahabharata . Under the Pali form of its name, Indapatta, it is also mentioned in Buddhist texts as the capital of the Kuru mahajanapada. Modern historical research pin its location in the region of present-day New Delhi, particularly the Old Fort (Purana Qila).[2] The city is sometimes also known as Khandavaprastha or Khandava Forest, the name of a forest region on the banks of Yamuna river which (according to the Mahabharata) had been cleared by Krishna and Arjun to build the city.

History[edit]

Indraprastha is referenced in the Mahabharata, a Sanskrit Indian text compiled over a period approximately between 400 BCE and 400 CE. It was one of the five places demanded for the sake of peace and to avert a disastrous war, Krishna proposed that if Hastinapur agreed to give the Pandavas only five villages, namely, Indraprastha (Delhi), Swarnprastha (Sonipat), Panprastha (Panipat), Vyaghrprastha (Baghpat) and Tilprastha (Tilpat)[3][4] then they would be satisfied and would make no more demands. Duryodhana vehemently refused, commenting that he would not part with land even as much as the point of a needle. Thus, the stage was set for the great war for which the epic of Mahabharata is known most of all. The Mahabharata records Indraprastha as being home to the Pandavas, whose wars with the Kauravas it describes.

File:Maurya Empire, c.250 BCE.png
Indraprastha within the Maurya Empire

During the Mauryan period, Indraprastha was known as Indapatta in Buddhist literature. The location of Indraprastha is uncertain but Purana Qila in present day New Delhi is frequently cited.[lower-alpha 1][5] and has been noted as such in texts as old as the 14th-century CE.[6] The modern form of the name, Inderpat, continued to be applied to the Purana Qila area into the early 20th century;[7] in a study of ancient Indian place-names, Michael Witzel considers this to be one of many places from the Sanskrit Epics whose names have been retained into modern times, such as Kaushambi/Kosam.[8]

Location[edit]

Purana Qila is certainly an ancient settlement but archaeological studies performed there since the 1950s[lower-alpha 2][lower-alpha 3] have failed to reveal structures and artefacts that would confirm the architectural grandeur and rich lives in the period that the Mahabharata describes. The historian Upinder Singh notes that despite the academic debate, "Ultimately, there is no way of conclusively proving or disproving whether the Pandavas or Kauravas ever lived ...".[6] However, it is possible that the main part of the ancient city has not been reached by excavations so far, but rather falls under the unexcavated area extending directly to the south of Purana Qila.[lower-alpha 4] Overall, Delhi has been the center of the area where the ancient city has historically been estimated to be. Until 1913, a village called Indrapat existed within the fort walls.[11] As of 2014, the Archaeological Survey of India is continuing excavation in Purana Qila.[12]

Historical Significance[edit]

Indraprastha is not only known from the Mahabharata. It is also mentioned as "Indapatta" or "Indapattana" in Pali-language Buddhist texts, where it is described as the capital of the Kuru Kingdom,[13] situated on the Yamuna River.[14] The Buddhist literature also mentions Hatthinipura (Hastinapura) and several smaller towns and villages of the Kuru kingdom.[13] Indraprastha may have been known to the Greco-Roman world as well: it is thought to be mentioned in Ptolemy's Geography dating from the 2nd century CE as the city "Indabara", possibly derived from the Prakrit form "Indabatta", and which was probably in the vicinity of Delhi.[15] Upinder Singh (2004) describes this equation of Indabara with Indraprastha as "plausible".[16] Indraprastha is also named as a pratigana (district) of the Delhi region in a Sanskrit inscription dated to 1327 CE, discovered in Raisina area of New Delhi.[17]

D. C. Sircar, an epigraphist, believed Indraprastha was a significant city in the Mauryan period, based on analysis of a stone carving found in the Delhi area at Sriniwaspuri which records the reign of the Mauryan emperor Ashoka. Singh has cast doubt on this interpretation because the inscription does not actually refer to Indraprastha and although "... a place of importance must certainly have been located in the vicinity of the rock edict, exactly which one it was and what it was known as, is uncertain." Similarly, remains, such as an iron pillar, that have been associated with Ashoka are not indubitably so: their composition is atypical and the inscriptions are vague.[6]

Delhi[edit]

Delhi (/ˈdɛli/; Hindustani pronunciation: [ˈdɪlːiː] Dillī; Punjabi pronunciation: [ˈdɪlːiː] Dillī; Hindustani pronunciation: [ˈdɛɦliː] Dêhlī),[18] officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India.[19][20] Straddling the Yamuna river, primarily its western or right bank, Delhi shares borders with the state of Uttar Pradesh in the east and with the state of Haryana in the remaining directions. The NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres (573 sq mi).[21] According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million,[22][23][24] while the NCT's population was about 16.8 million.[25] Delhi's urban agglomeration, which includes the satellite cities of Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida in an area known as the National Capital Region (NCR), has an estimated population of over 28 million, making it the largest metropolitan area in India and the second-largest in the world (after Tokyo).[26]

The topography of the medieval fort Purana Qila on the banks of the river Yamuna matches the literary description of the citadel Indraprastha in the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata; however, excavations in the area have revealed no signs of an ancient built environment. From the early 13th-century until the mid-19th century, Delhi was the capital of two major empires, the Delhi sultanate and the Mughal Empire, which covered large parts of South Asia. All three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the city, the Qutub Minar, Humayun's Tomb, and the Red Fort belong to this period. Delhi was the early centre of Sufism and Qawwali music. The names of Nizamuddin Auliya and Amir Khusrau are prominently associated with it. The Khariboli dialect of Delhi was part of a linguistic development that gave rise to the literature of the Urdu language and then of Modern Standard Hindi. Major Urdu poets from Delhi are Mir Taqi Mir, and Mirza Ghalib. Delhi was a major centre of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. In 1911, New Delhi, a southern region within Delhi, became the capital of the British Indian Empire. During the Partition of India in 1947, Delhi was transformed from a Mughal city to a Punjabi one, losing two-thirds of its Muslims residents, in part to the pressure brought to bear by arriving Hindu refugees from western Punjab.[27] After independence in 1947, New Delhi continued as the capital of the Dominion of India, and after 1950 of the Republic of India.

Delhi is home to the second highest number of billionaires and millionaires of any city in India.[28] Delhi ranks fifth among the Indian states and union territories in human development index.[29] Delhi has the second-highest GDP per capita in India (after Goa).[30] Although a union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more closely resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, and serves as the capital of the nation as well as the NCT of Delhi. Delhi is also the centre of the National Capital Region, which is a 'interstate regional planning' area created in 1985.[31][32] Delhi hosted the inaugural 1951 Asian Games, 1982 Asian Games, 1983 NAM Summit, 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup.

Toponym[edit]

The ancient name of the site of modern Delhi is Indraprastha, which literally means "Plain of Indra"[1] or "City of Indra" in Sanskrit.

There are a number of myths and legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BCE and named it after himself.[33][34][35] Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhili (loose) and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the iron pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved.[35] According to Panjab Notes and Queries, the name of the city at the time of King Prithviraj was dilpat, and that dilpat and dilli are probably derived from the old Hindi word dil meaning "eminence". The former director of the Archaeological Survey of India, Alexander Cunningham, mentioned that dilli later became dihli/dehli.[36] Some suggest the coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal.[37] According to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom. He ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and later named the fort dehali.[38] Some historians believe that Dhilli or Dhillika is the original name for the city while others believe the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning "threshold" or "gateway"—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.[39][40][41]

The people of Delhi are referred to as Delhiites or Dilliwalas.[42] The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Examples include:

  • Abhī Dillī dūr hai (अभी दिल्ली दूर है / ابھی دلی دور ہے) or its Persian version, Hanuz Dehli dur ast (هنوز دهلی دور است), literally meaning "Delhi is still far away", which is generically said about a task or journey still far from completion.[43][44]
  • Ās-pās barse, Dillī pānī tarse (आस-पास बरसे, दिल्ली पानी तरसे \ آس پاس برسے، دلی پانی ترسے), literally meaning "It pours all around, while Delhi lies parched". An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty.[44]

The form Delhi, used in Latin script and strangely with an h following an l, originated under colonial rule and is a corrupt spelling based on the Urdu name of the city (دہلی, Dehli).[45]

History[edit]

Ancient and Early Medieval Periods[edit]

File:Purana Qila ramparts, Delhi.jpg
The walls of the 16th-century Purana Qila built on a mound whose topography is thought to match the literary description of the citadel Indraprastha in the Sanskrit-epic Mahabharata, though excavations in the vicinity have yielded no evidence of construction.[46]

Traditionally seven cities have been associated with the region of Delhi. The earliest, Indraprastha, is part of a literary description in the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata (composed c. 400 BCE to 200 CE but describing an earlier time) which situates a city on a knoll on the banks of the river Yamuna. According to art historian Catherine B. Asher, the topographical description of the Mahabharata matches the area of Purana Qila, a 14th-century CE fort of the Delhi sultanate, but the analogy does not go much further. Whereas the Mahabharata speaks of a beautifully decorated city with surrounding fortification, the excavations have yielded "uneven findings of painted gray pottery characteristic of the eleventh century BCE; no signs of a built environment, much less fortifications, have been revealed."[46]

The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period (c. 300 BCE); in 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (273–235 BCE) was discovered near Srinivaspuri. Remains of several major cities can be found in Delhi. The first of these were in the southern part of present-day Delhi. King Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty built Lal Kot and several temples in 1052 CE. Vigraharaj Chauhan conquered Lal Kot in the mid-12th century and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora.

Late Medieval Period[edit]

File:Qutub - Minar, Delhi (6994969674).jpg
At 72.5 m (238 ft), the Qutb Minar, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Delhi,[47] was completed during the reign of Sultan Illtutmish in the 13th century; although its style has some similarities with the Jarkurgan minaret, it is more closely related to the Ghaznavid and Ghurid minarets of Central Asia[48]

The king Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori in the second battle of Tarain, an invader from Afghanistan, who made a concerted effort to conquer northern India.[33] Qutb-ud-din Aibak, was given the responsibility of governing the conquered territories of India until Ghori returned to his capital, Ghor. When Ghori died without an heir in 1206 CE, Qutb-ud-din assumed control of Ghori's Indian possessions, and laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mamluk dynasty. He began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam (Might of Islam) mosque, the earliest extant mosque in India. It was his successor, Iltutmish (1211–1236), who consolidated the Turkic conquest of northern India.[33][49] Razia Sultan, daughter of Iltutmish, succeeded him as the Sultan of Delhi. She was the first and only woman to rule over Delhi prior to the British Raj.

For the next three hundred years, Delhi was ruled by a succession of Turkic and an Afghan, Lodi dynasty. They built several forts and townships that are part of the seven cities of Delhi.[50] Delhi was a major centre of Sufism during this period.[51] The Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi) was overthrown in 1290 by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji (1290–1320). Under the second Khalji ruler, Ala-ud-din Khalji, the Delhi sultanate extended its control south of the Narmada River in the Deccan. The Delhi sultanate reached its greatest extent during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–1351). In an attempt to bring the whole of the Deccan under control, he moved his capital to Daulatabad, Maharashtra in central India. However, by moving away from Delhi he lost control of the north and was forced to return to Delhi to restore order. The southern provinces then broke away. In the years following the reign of Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), the Delhi Sultanate rapidly began to lose its hold over its northern provinces. Delhi was captured and sacked by Timur in 1398,[52] who massacred 100,000 captive civilian.[53] Delhi's decline continued under the Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451), until the sultanate was reduced to Delhi and its hinterland. Under the Afghan Lodi dynasty (1451–1526), the Delhi sultanate recovered control of the Punjab and the Gangetic plain to once again achieve domination over Northern India. However, the recovery was short-lived and the sultanate was destroyed in 1526 by Babur, founder of the Mughal dynasty.

Early Modern Period[edit]

File:Delhi Red fort.jpg
Red Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was the main residence of the Mughal emperors for nearly 200 years.

In 1526, Babur a descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur, from the Fergana Valley in modern-day Uzbekistan invaded India, defeated the last Lodhi sultan in the First Battle of Panipat and founded the Mughal Empire that ruled from Delhi and Agra.[33] The Mughal dynasty ruled Delhi for more than three centuries, with a sixteen-year hiatus during the reigns of Sher Shah Suri and Hemu from 1540 to 1556.[54] Shah Jahan built the seventh city of Delhi that bears his name Shahjahanabad, which served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1638 and is today known as the Old City or Old Delhi.[55]

After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughal Empire's influence declined rapidly as the Hindu Maratha Empire from Deccan Plateau rose to prominence.[56] In 1737, Maratha forces led by Baji Rao I sacked Delhi following their victory against the Mughals in the First Battle of Delhi. In 1739, the Mughal Empire lost the huge Battle of Karnal in less than three hours against the numerically outnumbered but militarily superior Persian army led by Nader Shah of Persia. After his invasion, he completely sacked and looted Delhi, carrying away immense wealth including the Peacock Throne, the Daria-i-Noor, and Koh-i-Noor. The Mughals, severely further weakened, could never overcome this crushing defeat and humiliation which also left the way open for more invaders to come, including eventually the British.[57][58][59] Nader eventually agreed to leave the city and India after forcing the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah I to beg him for mercy and granting him the keys of the city and the royal treasury.[60] A treaty signed in 1752 made Marathas the protectors of the Mughal throne in Delhi.[61] The city was sacked again in 1757 by the forces of Ahmad Shah Durrani, although it was not annexed by the Afghan Empire and being its vassal state under the Mughal emperor. Then the Marathas battled and won control of Delhi from the Mughals.[62] By the end of the century, Delhi had also come under control of the Bharatpur State and the Sikh Empire.

Colonial Period[edit]

In 1803, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, the forces of British East India Company defeated the Maratha forces in the Battle of Delhi.[63]

File:NewDelhiInaugurationSecondDayCancellation27Feb1931.jpg
Six stamps issued by the Government of British India to mark the inauguration of New Delhi in February 1931

During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Delhi fell to the forces of East India Company after a bloody fight known as the Siege of Delhi. The city came under the direct control of the British Government in 1858. It was made a district province of the Punjab.[33] In 1911, it was announced that the capital of British-held territories in India was to be transferred from Calcutta to Delhi.[64] The name "New Delhi" was given in 1927, and the new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931. New Delhi was officially declared as the capital of the Union of India after the country gained independence on 15 August 1947.[65] It has expanded since; the small part of it that was constructed during the British period has come to be informally known as Lutyens' Delhi.[66]

Partition and post-independence[edit]

File:New Delhi India ~Khan Market.jpg
Khan Market in New Delhi, now a high-end shopping district, was established in 1951 to help refugees of the Partition of India, especially those from the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). It honours Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan, Chief Minister of NWFP during the Partition.[67][68]

During the partition of India, around five lakh Hindu and Sikh refugees, mainly from West Punjab fled to Delhi, while around three lakh Muslim residents of the city migrated to Pakistan.[69][70] Ethnic Punjabis are believed to account for at least 40% of Delhi's total population and are predominantly Hindi-speaking Punjabi Hindus.[71][72][73] Migration to Delhi from the rest of India continues (as of 2013), contributing more to the rise of Delhi's population than the birth rate, which is declining.[74]

The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 created the Union Territory of Delhi from its predecessor, the Chief Commissioner's Province of Delhi.[75][76] The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as the National Capital Territory of Delhi.[77] The Act gave Delhi its own legislative assembly along Civil lines, though with limited powers.[77]

In 2001, the Parliament of India building in New Delhi was attacked by armed militants, killing six security personnel.[78] India suspected Pakistan-based militant groups were behind the attack, which caused a major diplomatic crisis between the two countries.[79] There were further terrorist attacks in Delhi in 2005 and 2008, resulting in a total of 92 deaths.[80][81]

The 2020 Delhi riots, Delhi's worst communal violence in decades, which was noted for killings and property destruction in North East Delhi, began on 23 February 2020 and was caused mainly by Hindu mobs attacking Muslims.[82][83] Of the 53 people killed, two-thirds were Muslims.[84][85][86] The dead also included a policeman, an intelligence officer and over a dozen Hindus.[85]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

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  1. For instance, Indologist J. A. B. van Buitenen, who translated the Mahabharata, wrote in 1973 that "there can be no reasonable doubt about the locations of Hastinapura, of Indraprastha (Delhi's Purana Qila [...]), and of Mathura
  2. Archaeological surveys were carried out in 1954-1955 and between 1969 and 1973.[9]
  3. The 1954-1955 sessions revealed pottery of the Painted Grey Ware (before c.600 BCE), Northern Black Polished Ware (c.600-200 BCE), Shunga, and Kushan Empire periods. The 1969-1973 sessions failed to reach the PGW levels, but found continuous occupation from the NBPW period to the 19th century: the Maurya-period settlement yielded mud-brick and wattle-and-daub houses, brick drains, wells, figurines of terracotta, a stone carving, a stamp seal impression, and a copper coin.[7]
  4. Historian William Dalrymple quotes archaeologist B. B. Lal's suggestion, "the main part of the city must probably have been to the south – through the Humayun Gate towards Humayun's Tomb [...] where the Zoo and Sundernagar are now."[10]

Citations

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  1. 1.0 1.1 Upinder Singh (25 September 2017). Political Violence in Ancient India [archive]. Harvard University Press. p. 401. ISBN 978-0-674-98128-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Singh2017" defined multiple times with different content
  2. Imperial Gazetteer of India (1911). Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 11 [archive]. Oxford Press. p. 236.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Geeta Jayanti 2019: पांडवों ने कौरवों से मांगे थे ये पांच गांव जानिए इनके बारे में" [archive]. Nai Dunia (in हिन्दी). 5 December 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "इन पांच गांवों के कारण हुआ था पांडव और कौरवों में महाभारत का युद्ध | mahabharata war" [archive]. hindi.webdunia.com. Retrieved 2 September 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. J. A. B. van Buitenen; Johannes Adrianus Bernardus Buitenen; James L. Fitzgerald (1973). The Mahabharata, Volume 1: Book 1: The Book of the Beginning [archive]. University of Chicago Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-226-84663-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Singh, Upinder, ed. (2006). Delhi: Ancient History [archive]. Berghahn Books. pp. xvii–xxi, 53–56. ISBN 9788187358299.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.0 7.1 Amalananda Ghosh (1990). An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology, Volume 2. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. pp. 353–354. ISBN 978-81-215-0089-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Witzel, Michael (1999). "Aryan and non-Aryan Names in Vedic India. Data for the linguistic situation, c. 1900-500 B.C.". In Bronhorst, Johannes; Deshpande, Madhav (eds.). Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia [archive] (PDF). Harvard University Press. pp. 337–404 (p.25 of PDF). ISBN 978-1-888789-04-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Singh, Upinder, ed. (2006). Delhi: Ancient History [archive]. Berghahn Books. p. 187. ISBN 9788187358299.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. William Dalrymple (2003). City of Djinns: A Year in Delhi [archive]. Penguin Publishing Group. p. 370. ISBN 978-1-101-12701-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Delhi city guide [archive]. Eicher Goodearth Limited, Delhi Tourism. 1998. p. 162. ISBN 81-900601-2-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Tankha, Madhur (11 March 2014). "The discovery of Indraprastha" [archive]. The HIndu. Retrieved 14 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. 13.0 13.1 H.C. Raychaudhuri (1950). Political History of Ancient India: from the accession of Parikshit to the extinction of the Gupta dynasty. University of Calcutta. pp. 41, 133.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Moti Chandra (1977). Trade and Trade Routes in Ancient India [archive]. Abhinav Publications. p. 77. ISBN 978-81-7017-055-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. J. W. McCrindle (1885). Ancient India as Described by Ptolemy [archive]. Thacker, Spink, & Company. p. 128 [archive].<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Upinder Singh (2004). The discovery of ancient India: early archaeologists and the beginnings of archaeology [archive]. Permanent Black. p. 67. ISBN 978-81-7824-088-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Singh (ed., 2006), p.186
  18. Platts, John Thompson (1960) [First published 1884]. A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English [archive]. London: Oxford University Press. p. 546. ISBN 0-19-864309-8. OCLC 3201841 [archive]. Archived [archive] from the original on 9 January 2022. Retrieved 12 November 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "The Constitution (Sixty-Ninth Amendment) Act, 1991" [archive]. Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India. Archived from the original [archive] on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Habib, Irfan (1999). The agrarian system of Mughal India, 1556–1707 [archive]. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-562329-1. Archived [archive] from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 6 November 2015. The current Survey of India spellings are followed for place names except where they vary rather noticeably from the spellings in our sources: thus I read 'Dehli' not 'Delhi ...<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Delhi Info
  22. "Census of India: Provisional Population Totals Paper 1 of 2011, NCT of Delhi" [archive]. Census of India. 2011. Archived from the original [archive] on 19 January 2022. Retrieved 12 February 2022.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. Delhi Metropolitan/City Population section of "Delhi Population Sex Ratio in Delhi Literacy rate Delhi NCR". 2011 Census of India. Archived [archive] from the original on 26 January 2017 |archive-url= requires |url= (help). Missing or empty |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. "This study settles the Delhi versus Mumbai debate: The Capital's economy is streets ahead" [archive]. Archived [archive] from the original on 21 December 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named delhi2011
  26. "The World's Cities in 2018" [archive] (PDF). United Nations. Archived [archive] (PDF) from the original on 31 August 2021. Retrieved 2 September 2021.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Talbot, Ian; Singh, Gurharpal (2009), The Partition of India [archive], Cambridge University Press, pp. 118–119, ISBN 978-0-521-85661-4, archived [archive] from the original on 2 December 2021, retrieved 3 December 2021, It is now almost a cliché that the Partition transformed Delhi from a Mughal to a Punjabi city. The bitter experiences of the refugees encouraged them to support right-wing Hindu parties. ... Trouble began in September (1947) after the arrival of refugees from Pakistan who were determined on revenge and driving Muslims out of properties which they could then occupy. Gandhi in his prayer meetings in Birla House denounced the 'crooked and ungentlemanly' squeezing out of Muslims. Despite these exhortations, two-thirds of the city's Muslims were to eventually abandon India's capital.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "Mumbai richest Indian city with total wealth of $820 billion, Delhi comes second: Report" [archive]. The Indian Express. 27 February 2017. Archived [archive] from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named snhdi-gdl
  30. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Delhi_Budget
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Sources[edit]

This article includes modified content derived from Wikipedia. Articles Delhi, New Delhi, Indraprastha at wikipedia [1] [archive][2] [archive][3] [archive]

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