Mother Teresa

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Mother Teresa (मदर टेरेसा) was an Albanian-Indian. She was born in Skopje (now the capital of the Republic of Macedonia), then part of the Kosovo Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. After living in Macedonia for eighteen years she moved to Ireland and then to India, where she lived for most of her life.

A controversial figure during her life and after her death, Teresa was admired by many for her charitable work. She was praised and criticised for her opposition to abortion, and criticised for poor conditions in her houses for the dying.

Early life[edit]

Teresa was born Anjezë Gonxhe (or Gonxha)[1] Bojaxhiu (Template:IPA-sq; Anjezë is a cognate of "Agnes"; Gonxhe means "rosebud" or "little flower" in Albanian) on 26 August 1910 into a Kosovar Albanian family[2][3][4] in Skopje (now the capital of the Republic of Macedonia), Ottoman Empire.[5][6] She was baptized in Skopje, the day after her birth.[1] She later considered 27 August, the day she was baptised, her "true birthday".[5]

She was the youngest child of Nikollë and Dranafile Bojaxhiu (Bernai).[7] Her father, who was involved in Albanian-community politics in Macedonia, died in 1919 when she was eight years old.[5][8] He may have been from Prizren, Kosovo, and her mother may have been from a village near Gjakova.[9]

According to a biography by Joan Graff Clucas, during her early years Teresa was fascinated by stories of the lives of missionaries and their service in Bengal; by age 12, she was convinced that she should commit herself to religious life.[10] Her resolve strengthened on 15 August 1928 as she prayed at the shrine of the Black Madonna of Vitina-Letnice, where she often went on pilgrimages.[11]

Teresa left home in 1928 at age 18 to join the Sisters of Loreto at Loreto Abbey in Rathfarnham, Ireland, to learn English with the view of becoming a missionary; English was the language of instruction of the Sisters of Loreto in India.[12] She never saw her mother or her sister again.[13] Her family lived in Skopje until 1934, when they moved to Tirana.[14]

She arrived in India in 1929[15] and began her novitiate in Darjeeling, in the lower Himalayas,[16] where she learnt Bengali and taught at St. Teresa's School near her convent.[17] Teresa took her first religious vows on 24 May 1931. She chose to be named after Thérèse de Lisieux, the patron saint of missionaries;[18][19] because a nun in the convent had already chosen that name, Agnes opted for its Spanish spelling (Teresa).[20]

Teresa took her solemn vows on 14 May 1937 while she was a teacher at the Loreto convent school in Entally, eastern Calcutta.[5][21][22] She served there for nearly twenty years, and was appointed its headmistress in 1944.[23] Although Teresa enjoyed teaching at the school, she was increasingly disturbed by the poverty surrounding her in Calcutta.[24] The Bengal famine of 1943 brought misery and death to the city, and the August 1946 Direct Action Day began a period of Muslim-Hindu violence.[25]

International charity[edit]

Teresa said, "By blood, I am Albanian. By citizenship, an Indian. By faith, I am a Catholic nun. As to my calling, I belong to the world. As to my heart, I belong entirely to the Heart of Jesus."[26] Fluent in five languages – Bengali,[27] Albanian, Serbian, English and Hindi – she made occasional trips outside India for humanitarian reasons.[28]

In 1982, at the height of the Siege of Beirut, Teresa rescued 37 children trapped in a front-line hospital by brokering a temporary cease-fire between the Israeli army and Palestinian guerrillas.[29] Accompanied by Red Cross workers, she travelled through the war zone to the hospital to evacuate the young patients.[30]

When Eastern Europe experienced increased openness in the late 1980s, Teresa expanded her efforts to Communist countries which had rejected the Missionaries of Charity. She began dozens of projects, undeterred by criticism of her stands against abortion and divorce: "No matter who says what, you should accept it with a smile and do your own work." She visited Armenia after the 1988 earthquake[31] and met with Nikolai Ryzhkov, Chairman of the Council of Ministers.[32]

Teresa travelled to assist the hungry in Ethiopia, radiation victims at Chernobyl and earthquake victims in Armenia.[33][34][35] In 1991 she returned to Albania for the first time, opening a Missionaries of Charity Brothers home in Tirana.[36]

By 1996, Teresa operated 517 missions in over 100 countries.[37] Her Missionaries of Charity grew from twelve to thousands, serving the "poorest of the poor" in 450 centres worldwide. The first Missionaries of Charity home in the United States was established in the South Bronx area of New York City, and by 1984 the congregation operated 19 establishments throughout the country.[38]

Recognition and reception[edit]

India[edit]

Teresa was first recognised by the Indian government more than a third of a century earlier, receiving the Padma Shri in 1962 and the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding in 1969.[39] She later received other Indian awards, including the Bharat Ratna (India's highest civilian award) in 1980.[40] Teresa's official biography, by Navin Chawla, was published in 1992.[41] In Kolkata, she is worshipped as a goddess by some Hindus.[42]

To commemorate the 100th anniversary of her birth, the government of India issued a special 5 coin (the amount of money Teresa had when she arrived in India) on 28 August 2010. President Pratibha Patil said, "Clad in a white sari with a blue border, she and the sisters of Missionaries of Charity became a symbol of hope to many – the aged, the destitute, the unemployed, the diseased, the terminally ill, and those abandoned by their families."[43]

Indian views of Teresa are not uniformly favourable. Aroup Chatterjee, a physician born and raised in Calcutta who was an activist in the city's slums for years around 1980 before moving to the UK, said that he "never even saw any nuns in those slums".[44] His research, involving more than 100 interviews with volunteers, nuns and others familiar with the Missionaries of Charity, was described in a 2003 book critical of Teresa.[44] Chatterjee criticized her for promoting a "cult of suffering" and a distorted, negative image of Calcutta, exaggerating work done by her mission and misusing funds and privileges at her disposal.[44][45] According to him, some of the hygiene problems he had criticized (needle reuse, for example) improved after Teresa's death in 1997.[44]

Bikash Ranjan Bhattacharya, mayor of Kolkata from 2005 to 2010, said that "she had no significant impact on the poor of this city", glorified illness instead of treating it and misrepresented the city: "No doubt there was poverty in Calcutta, but it was never a city of lepers and beggars, as Mother Teresa presented it."[46] On the Hindu right, the Bharatiya Janata Party clashed with Teresa over the Christian Dalits but praised her in death and sent a representative to her funeral.[47] Vishwa Hindu Parishad, however, opposed the government decision to grant her a state funeral. Secretary Giriraj Kishore said that "her first duty was to the Church and social service was incidental", accusing her of favouring Christians and conducting "secret baptisms" of the dying.[48][49] In a front-page tribute, the Indian fortnightly Frontline dismissed the charges as "patently false" and said that they had "made no impact on the public perception of her work, especially in Calcutta". Praising her "selfless caring", energy and bravery, the author of the tribute criticised Teresa's public campaign against abortion and her claim to be non-political.[50]

In February 2015 Mohan Bhagwat, leader of the Hindu right-wing organisation Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, said that Teresa's objective was "to convert the person, who was being served, into a Christian".[51] Former RSS spokesperson M. G. Vaidhya supported Bhagwat's assessment, and the organisation accused the media of "distorting facts about Bhagwat's remarks". Trinamool Congress MP Derek O'Brien, CPI leader Atul Anjan and Delhi chief minister Arvind Kejriwal protested Bhagwat's statement.[52]

Elsewhere[edit]

Teresa received the Ramon Magsaysay Award for Peace and International Understanding, given for work in South or East Asia, in 1962. According to its citation, "The Board of Trustees recognises her merciful cognisance of the abject poor of a foreign land, in whose service she has led a new congregation".[53] By the early 1970s, she was an international celebrity. Teresa's fame may be partially attributed to Malcolm Muggeridge's 1969 documentary, Something Beautiful for God, and his 1971 book of the same name. Muggeridge was undergoing a spiritual journey of his own at the time.[54] During filming, footage shot in poor lighting (particularly at the Home for the Dying) was thought unlikely to be usable by the crew. In England, the footage was found to be extremely well-lit and Muggeridge called it a miracle of "divine light" from Teresa.[55] Other crew members said that it was due to a new type of ultra-sensitive Kodak film.[56] Muggeridge later converted to Catholicism.[57]

Around this time, the Catholic world began to honour Teresa publicly. Pope Paul VI gave her the inaugural Pope John XXIII Peace Prize in 1971, commending her work with the poor, display of Christian charity and efforts for peace,[58] and she received the Pacem in Terris Award in 1976.[59] After her death, Teresa progressed rapidly on the road to sainthood.

She was honoured by governments and civilian organisations, and appointed an honorary Companion of the Order of Australia in 1982 "for service to the community of Australia and humanity at large".[60] The United Kingdom and the United States bestowed a number of awards, culminating in the Order of Merit in 1983 and honorary citizenship of the United States on 16 November 1996.[61] Teresa's Albanian homeland gave her the Golden Honour of the Nation in 1994,[50] but her acceptance of this and the Haitian Legion of Honour was controversial. Teresa was criticised for implicitly supporting the Duvaliers and corrupt businessmen such as Charles Keating and Robert Maxwell; she wrote to the judge of Keating's trial, requesting clemency.[50][62]

Universities in India and the West granted her honorary degrees.[50] Other civilian awards included the Balzan Prize for promoting humanity, peace and brotherhood among peoples (1978)[63] and the Albert Schweitzer International Prize (1975).[64] In April 1976 Teresa visited the University of Scranton in northeastern Pennsylvania, where she received the La Storta Medal for Human Service from university president William J. Byron.[65] She challenged an audience of 4,500 to "know poor people in your own home and local neighbourhood", feeding others or simply spreading joy and love,[66] and continued: "The poor will help us grow in sanctity, for they are Christ in the guise of distress".[65] In August 1987 Teresa received an honorary doctor of social science degree, in recognition of her service and her ministry to help the destitute and sick, from the university.[67] She spoke to over 4,000 students and members of the Diocese of Scranton[68] about her service to the "poorest of the poor", telling them to "do small things with great love".[69]

External video
210px
16px Mother Teresa's 1979 Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech

In 1979, Teresa received the Nobel Peace Prize "for work undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty and distress, which also constitutes a threat to peace".[70] She refused the conventional ceremonial banquet for laureates, asking that its $192,000 cost be given to the poor in India[71] and saying that earthly rewards were important only if they helped her to help the world's needy. When Teresa received the prize she was asked, "What can we do to promote world peace?" She answered, "Go home and love your family." Building on this theme in her Nobel lecture, she said: "Around the world, not only in the poor countries, but I found the poverty of the West so much more difficult to remove. When I pick up a person from the street, hungry, I give him a plate of rice, a piece of bread, I have satisfied. I have removed that hunger. But a person that is shut out, that feels unwanted, unloved, terrified, the person that has been thrown out from society—that poverty is so hurtable [sic] and so much, and I find that very difficult." Teresa singled out abortion as "the greatest destroyer of peace today. Because if a mother can kill her own child—what is left for me to kill you and you kill me—there is nothing between."[72]

Barbara Smoker of the secular humanist magazine The Freethinker criticised Teresa after the Peace Prize award, saying that her promotion of Catholic moral teachings on abortion and contraception diverted funds from effective methods to solve India's problems.[73] At the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, Teresa said: "Yet we can destroy this gift of motherhood, especially by the evil of abortion, but also by thinking that other things like jobs or positions are more important than loving."[74]

During her lifetime Teresa was among the top 10 women in the annual Gallup's most admired man and woman poll 18 times, finishing first several times in the 1980s and 1990s.[75] In 1999 she headed Gallup's List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century,[76] out-polling all other volunteered answers by a wide margin, and was first in all major demographic categories except the very young.[76][77]

Criticism[edit]

According to a paper by Canadian academics Serge Larivée, Geneviève Chénard and Carole Sénéchal, Teresa's clinics received millions of dollars in donations but lacked medical care, systematic diagnosis, necessary nutrition and sufficient analgesics for those in pain:[78] "Mother Teresa believed the sick must suffer like Christ on the cross".[79] It was said that the additional money might have transformed the health of the city's poor by creating advanced palliative care facilities.[80][81] Abortion-rights groups criticised Teresa's stance on abortion,[82][83][84] and opponents of abortion praised her support of fetal rights.[85][86][87]

One of Teresa's most outspoken critics was English journalist, literary critic and antitheist Christopher Hitchens, author of the essay The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice (1995), who wrote in a 2003 article: "This returns us to the medieval corruption of the church, which sold indulgences to the rich while preaching hellfire and continence to the poor. [Mother Teresa] was not a friend of the poor. She was a friend of poverty. She said that suffering was a gift from God. She spent her life opposing the only known cure for poverty, which is the empowerment of women and the emancipation of them from a livestock version of compulsory reproduction."[88] He accused her of hypocrisy for choosing advanced treatment for her heart condition.[89][90]

Although Hitchens thought he was the only witness called by the Vatican, Aroup Chatterjee (author of Mother Teresa: The Untold Story) was also called to present evidence opposing Teresa's beatification and canonisation;[91] the Vatican had abolished the traditional "devil's advocate", which served a similar purpose.[91] Hitchens said that "her intention was not to help people", and she lied to donors about how their contributions were used. "It was by talking to her that I discovered, and she assured me, that she wasn't working to alleviate poverty", he said, "She was working to expand the number of Catholics. She said, 'I'm not a social worker. I don't do it for this reason. I do it for Christ. I do it for the church.'"[92]

One of Teresa's most outspoken critics was English journalist, literary critic and antitheist Christopher Hitchens, host of the documentary Hell's Angel (1994) and author of the essay The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice (1995) who wrote in a 2003 article: "This returns us to the medieval corruption of the church, which sold indulgences to the rich while preaching hellfire and continence to the poor. [Mother Teresa] was not a friend of the poor. She was a friend of poverty. She said that suffering was a gift from God. She spent her life opposing the only known cure for poverty, which is the empowerment of women and the emancipation of them from a livestock version of compulsory reproduction."[93] He accused her of hypocrisy for choosing advanced treatment for her heart condition.[94][95] Hitchens said that "her intention was not to help people", and that she lied to donors about how their contributions were used. "It was by talking to her that I discovered, and she assured me, that she wasn't working to alleviate poverty", he said, "She was working to expand the number of Catholics. She said, 'I'm not a social worker. I don't do it for this reason. I do it for Christ. I do it for the church.'"[96] Although Hitchens thought he was the only witness called by the Vatican, Aroup Chatterjee (author of Mother Teresa: The Untold Story) was also called to present evidence opposing Teresa's beatification and canonisation;[91] the Vatican had abolished the traditional "devil's advocate", which served a similar purpose.[91]

Abortion-rights groups have also criticised Teresa's stance against abortion and contraception.[97][98][99]

Bill Donohue, the president of Catholic League, issued a comprehensive answer to Hitchens' criticisms in 2016.[100]

Canonisation[edit]

Miracle and beatification[edit]

After Teresa's death in 1997, the Holy See began the process of beatification (the third step towards canonisation) and Kolodiejchuk was appointed postulator by the Diocese of Calcutta. Although he said, "We didn't have to prove that she was perfect or never made a mistake ...", he had to prove that Teresa's virtue was heroic. Kolodiejchuk submitted 76 documents, totalling 35,000 pages, which were based on interviews with 113 witnesses who were asked to answer 263 questions.[101]

The process of canonisation requires the documentation of a miracle resulting from the intercession of the prospective saint.[102] In 2002 the Vatican recognised as a miracle the healing of a tumour in the abdomen of Monica Besra, an Indian woman, after the application of a locket containing Teresa's picture. According to Besra, a beam of light emanated from the picture and her cancerous tumour was cured; however, her husband and some of her medical staff said that conventional medical treatment eradicated the tumour.[103] Dr. Ranjan Mustafi, who told the New York Times he had treated Besra, said that the cyst was caused by tuberculosis: "It was not a miracle ... She took medicines for nine months to one year."[104] According to Besra's husband, "My wife was cured by the doctors and not by any miracle ... This miracle is a hoax."[105] Besra said that her medical records, including sonograms, prescriptions and physicians' notes, were confiscated by Sister Betta of the Missionaries of Charity. According to Time, calls to Sister Betta and the office of Sister Nirmala (Teresa's successor as head of the order) elicited no comment. Officials at Balurghat Hospital, where Besra sought medical treatment, said that they were pressured by the order to call her cure miraculous.[105] In February 2000, former West Bengal health minister Partho De ordered a review of Besra's medical records at the Department of Health in Kolkata. According to De, there was nothing unusual about her illness and cure based on her lengthy treatment. He said that he had refused to give the Vatican the name of a doctor who would certify that Monica Besra's healing was a miracle.[106]

During Teresa's beatification and canonisation, the Roman Curia (the Vatican) studied published and unpublished criticism of her life and work. Hitchens and Chatterjee (author of The Final Verdict, a book critical of Teresa) spoke to the tribunal; according to Vatican officials, the allegations raised were investigated by the Congregation for the Causes of Saints.[101] The group found no obstacle to Teresa's canonisation, and issued its nihil obstat on 21 April 1999.[107][108] Because of the attacks on her, some Catholic writers called her a sign of contradiction.[109] A separate medical committee ruled that the miracle of Monica Besra, one of three considered by Kolodiejchuk, was evidence of divine intercession.[101] Teresa was beatified on 19 October 2003, and was known by Catholics as "Blessed".[110]

Canonisation[edit]

On 17 December 2015, the Vatican confirmed that Pope Francis recognised a second miracle attributed to Teresa: the healing of a Brazilian man with multiple brain tumours.[111] Francis canonised her at a ceremony on 4 September 2016 in St. Peter's Square in Vatican City. Tens of thousands witnessed the ceremony, including 15 government delegations and 1,500 homeless people from across Italy.[112][113] It was televised live on the Vatican channel and streamed online; Skopje, Teresa's hometown, announced a week-long celebration of her canonisation.[112] In India, a special mass was celebrated by the Missionaries of Charity in Kolkata.[113]

Legacy and depictions in popular culture[edit]

  • I could go on and on, filling page after page with dense examples of disasters and crises where Mother Teresa had had no involvement whatsoever. For me, a Calcuttan, born and bred, it does not come as surprise, as I know her order has no infrastructure — indeed it had never been her intention to create an infrastructure for such work, as she had frequently said, 'I'm not a social worker.' But what I find somewhat disturbing is that she remained inactive when children were hurt or killed, or were at the risk of being orphaned … this did not sit comfortably with her 'Child First' philosophy. But then, for her the unborn child was far more important than the actual child. Having gone through hundreds of her speeches I have wondered, when compared to the unborn child if the actual child mattered to her at all.
    • Aroup Chatterjee (1998), Mother Teresa: The Final Verdict
  • Mother Teresa of Calcutta actually said, in her speech accepting the Nobel Peace Prize, 'The greatest destroyer of peace is abortion.' What? How can a woman with such cock-eyed judgement be taken seriously on any topic, let alone be thought seriously worthy of a Nobel Prize?
    • Richard Dawkins, The God Delusion (2006), Ch. 8: "What's wrong with religion? Why be so hostile?"
  • MT was not a friend of the poor. She was a friend of poverty. She said that suffering was a gift from God. She spent her life opposing the only known cure for poverty, which is the empowerment of women and the emancipation of them from a livestock version of compulsory reproduction. And she was a friend to the worst of the rich, taking misappropriated money from the atrocious Duvalier family in Haiti (whose rule she praised in return) and from Charles Keating of the Lincoln Savings and Loan. Where did that money, and all the other donations, go? The primitive hospice in Calcutta was as run down when she died as it always had been—she preferred California clinics when she got sick herself — and her order always refused to publish any audit. But we have her own claim that she opened 500 convents in more than a hundred countries, all bearing the name of her own order. Excuse me, but this is modesty and humility?
  • This very successful old and withered person, who doesn't look in the least like a woman, especially when she raises her clenched fists in prayer, and who, for us, is a very suspect holder of the Nobel Prize ... has become for us the symbol of all that is bad in motherhood and womanhood an image, with which we do not wish to be associated. Mother Teresa is the perfect image of a sexless, religious woman. This is, however, not the image of womanhood that we want. Show us instead the mother or daughter who can take delight in the most enjoyable of all worldly pleasures, sexual intimacy. You, you nightmare of women! You unliberated, enslaved wives, mothers, nuns and aunts, what do you want from us, who have finally decided that we are going to take control of our bodies, our children, and our destiny into our own hands? Do you not realize that you are all merely puppets of the devil?
    • Monika Goletzka, "Mother Teresa, The Woman of My Nightmares." (German: "Mutter Teresa - Frau meiner Alpträume") [1] , in, Sexualpedagogik, the official monthly publication of "Pro Familia," the West German Planned Parenthood affiliate, March 1986, as quoted by EWTN, citing, The Pro-Life Activist’s Encyclopedia, published by the American Life League, "chapter 67: Planned Parenthood Quotes," [2] [3]
      George Grant (1954 - ) gives these concluding remarks from Sexualpedagogik: "Oh! You poor little nuns who stand at Mother Teresa's right hand. Let us rid ourselves of these old mothers, aunts, and nuns who appropriate for themselves sorrow and suffering of those still-born babies conceived but not delivered by the beautiful bodies of the white, brown, yellow, and black women who have been physically and morally destroyed by the exploitation of men." Grand Illusions: The Legacy of Planned Parenthood (2000, 4th Revised ed.), Cumberland House, Nashville, Tennessee, <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css" />ISBN 1581820577 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css" />ISBN 9781581820577, ch. 3: "Without a Choice: The Empire Strikes Back," p. 59. (p. 54, 1998 ed.) [4] Citing note 58, p.371 (2000 ed.):Sexualpedagogik: German Planned Parenthood Federation, November 1985, translated Paul Marx, ALL About Issues, July 1987. [Fr. Paul Benno Marx, OSB (1920-2010), was founder of Human Life International in 1981].


Commemorations[edit]

Teresa has been commemorated by museums and named the patroness of a number of churches. She has had buildings, roads and complexes named after her, including Albania's international airport. Mother Teresa Day (Dita e Nënë Terezës), 19 October, is a public holiday in Albania. In 2009 the Memorial House of Mother Teresa was opened in her hometown of Skopje, Macedonia. The Roman Catholic cathedral in Pristina, Kosovo, is named in her honour.[114] Its construction, begun in 2011, sparked controversy in Muslim circles who saw it as oversized relative to the number of Catholics in the area. An initiative to erect a monument to Teresa in the town of Peć (according to activists, 98 percent Muslim) was opposed by Kosovo Muslims.[114]

Mother Teresa Women's University,[115] in Kodaikanal, was established in 1984 as a public university by the government of Tamil Nadu. The Mother Theresa Postgraduate and Research Institute of Health Sciences,[116] in Pondicherry, was established in 1999 by the government of Puducherry. The charitable organisation Sevalaya runs the Mother Teresa Girls Home, providing poor and orphaned girls near the underserved village of Kasuva in Tamil Nadu with free food, clothing, shelter and education.[117] A number of tributes by Teresa's biographer, Navin Chawla, have appeared in Indian newspapers and magazines.[118][119][120] Indian Railways introduced the "Mother Express", a new train named after Mother Teresa, on 26 August 2010 to commemorate the centenary of her birth.[121] The Tamil Nadu government organised centenary celebrations honouring Teresa on 4 December 2010 in Chennai, headed by chief minister M Karunanidhi.[122][123] Beginning on 5 September 2013, the anniversary of her death has been designated the International Day of Charity by the United Nations General Assembly.[124]

Film and literature[edit]

Documentaries and books[edit]

Dramatic films and television[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Blessed Are You: Mother Teresa and the Beatitudes, ed. by Eileen Egan and Kathleen Egan, O.S.B., MJF Books: New York, 1992
  2. Group, Salisbury (28 January 2011). The Salisbury Review, Volumes 19–20. InterVarsity Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-8308-3472-3. Mother Teresa, Albanian by birth<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Mother Teresa Beyond the Image". New York Times. 1997. Retrieved 15 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Alpion, Gëzim (2006). Mother Teresa: Saint or Celebrity?. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-203-08751-8. Retrieved 15 November 2014. the nun's mother was born in Prizren in Kosova, her family came originally from the Gjakova region, also in Kosova<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 (2002) "Mother Teresa of Calcutta (1910–1997)". Vatican News Service. Retrieved 30 May 2007.
  6. "The Nobel Peace Prize 1979: Mother Teresa". www.nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Lester, Meera (2004). Saints' Blessing. Fair Winds. p. 138. ISBN 1-59233-045-2. Retrieved 14 December 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Although some sources state she was 10 when her father died, in an interview with her brother, the Vatican documents her age at the time as "about eight".
  9. "Moder Teresa" (in Danish). Retrieved 23 August 2010. Hendes forældre var indvandret fra Shkodra i Albanien; muligvis stammede faderen fra Prizren, moderen fra en landsby i nærheden af Gjakova.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, p. 24. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  11. Meg Greene, Mother Teresa: A Biography, Greenwood Press, 2004, p. 11.
  12. Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 28–29. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  13. Sharn, Lori (5 September 1997). "Mother Teresa dies at 87". USA Today. Retrieved September 5, 2016
  14. Allegri, Renzo (2011-09-11). Conversations with Mother Teresa: A Personal Portrait of the Saint. ISBN 978-1-59325-415-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "From Sister to Mother to Saint: The journey of Mother Teresa". The New Indian Express. 31 August 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2016. [Mother Teresa] came to India in 1929 ... she founded the Missionaries of Charity in 1948.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Clucas (1988), p. 31
  17. Meg Greene, Mother Teresa: A Biography, Greenwood Press, 2004, page 17.
  18. Sebba, Anne (1997).Mother Teresa: Beyond the Image. New York. Doubleday, p.35. ISBN 0-385-48952-8.
  19. "Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta and St. Therese of Lisieux: Spiritual Sisters in the Night of Faith". Thereseoflisieux.org. 4 September 2007. Retrieved 24 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Meg Greene, Mother Teresa: A Biography, Greenwood Press, 2004, page 18.
  21. Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, p.16. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  22. Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, p. 32. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  23. Meg Greene, Mother Teresa: A Biography, Greenwood Press, 2004, page 25.
  24. Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.18–21. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  25. Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.18, 21–22. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  26. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Cannon2013
  27. "Mother Teresa". bangalinet.com. Retrieved 3 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "Top Ten Things to Know About Mother Teresa". biographycentral.net. Archived from the original on 24 August 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. CNN Staff, "Mother Teresa: A Profile", retrieved from CNN online[dead link] on 30 May 2007
  30. Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, p. 17. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  31. Milena, Faustova (26 August 2010). "Russian monument to Mother Teresa". Archived from the original on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. "Mother Teresa and Nikolai Ryzhkov". 20 December 1988. Retrieved 13 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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External links[edit]