Mandala 7

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The seventh Mandala of the Rigveda ("book 7", "RV 7") has 104 hymns. In the Rigveda Anukramani, all hymns in this book are attributed to Vashista. Hymn 32 is additionally credited to Sakti Vashista, and hymns 101-102 (to Parjanya) are additionally credited to Kumara Agneya. It is one of the "family books" (mandalas 2-7), the oldest core of the Rigveda.

The hymns are dedicated to Agni, Indra, the Visvadevas, the Maruts, Mitra-Varuna, the Asvins, Ushas (Dawn), Indra-Varuna, Varuna, Vayu (Wind), two each to Sarasvati, Rudra, the Waters, the Adityas, Vishnu, Vastospati, Brhaspati, one each to the Apris, to Vashista, Savitar, Bhaga, the Dadhikras, the Rbhus, Dyaus and Prthivi (Heaven and Earth), Parjanya (Rain) and Indra-Soma. 7.103 is dedicated to the frogs.

The rivers mentioned in the 7th Mandala are the Sarasvati, Asikni, Parusni and possibly the Yamuna (in 7.18.19 the name of a helper of Indra, maybe also the name of a woman or goddess). Hymns 95 and 96 are entirely dedicated to Sarasvati.

The battle of ten kings[edit]

The Battle of the Ten Kings (dāśarājñá) is a battle alluded to in the Rigveda (Book 7, hymns 18, 33 and 83.4-8), the ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns. The battle took place during the middle or main Rigvedic period,[1] near the Ravi River in Punjab. It was a battle between the Puru Vedic Aryan tribal kingdoms of the Bharatas, allied with other tribes of the north west India, guided by the royal sage Vishvamitra, and the Trtsu (Puru) king Sudas, who defeats the Bharatas. The Battle of the Ten Kings is on the Paruṣṇī (in VII.18, 83).

Later additions[edit]

VII.59.12 is found in the extant Rigveda, but missing in Śākalya’s padapāṭha. VII.59.12 is characterized by late words, unknown to the rest of the Rigveda, like tryambaka. (Talageri 2008)

VII.19.3 may be a late addition. (Talageri 2008).

Rivers and places[edit]

The third oldest Book, Book 7, refers to the third (from the east) of the five rivers of the Punjab, the Paruṣṇī, in reference to the battle of 10 kings, in which the non-Vedic enemies figure as the western people of the fourth river, the Asiknī. (Talageri 2008)

Eastern regions in Book 7: 2. Sarasvatī-8. 9. Sarasvatī-5. 18. Yamunā-19. 35. Sarasvatī-11. 36. Sarasvatī-6. 39. Sarasvatī-5. 40. Sarasvatī-3, pṛṣatī-3. 44. mahiṣa-5. 69. gaura-6. 95. Sarasvatī-1-2,4-6. 96. Sarasvatī-1,3-6. 98. gaura-1.

Central: 5. Asiknī-3. 18. Paruṣṇī-8,9.

Source:Talageri 2008


  1. Witzel (2000): between approximately 1450 and 1300 BCE