Mandala 4

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The fourth Mandala of the Rigveda has 58 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. It is one of the "family books" (mandalas 2-7), the oldest core of the Rigveda.

The Rigveda Anukramani attributes all hymns in this book to Vāmadeva Gautama, except for hymns 43 and 44, attributed to Purumīḍha Sauhotra and Ajamīḍha Sauhotra.

Book 4 which represents the westernmost thrust of Indo-Aryan expansion during the period of Sudās' descendants Sahadeva and Somaka and the battle "beyond the Sarayu" (IV.30.18) in Afghanistan.[1]

Later additions[edit]

IV.42.8-9 and IV.38.1 may be a late interpolation/addtion. (Talageri 2008).

Rivers and Places[edit]

Eastern regions in Book 4: 4. ibha-1. 16. hastin-14. 18. mahiṣa-11. 21. gaura-8. 58. gaura-2.

Western: Book 4: 30. Sindhu-12, Sarayu-18. 43. Rasā-6. 54. Sindhu-6. 55. Sindhu-3.

  • Book 4 alone (in Early and Middle RV), names three Western rivers in four hymns, two of which, ironically, have been classified by Oldenberg as late hymns in this Book) (Talageri 2008)

Central rivers: 22. Paruṣṇī-2. 28. (sapta+sindhu-1). 30. Vipāś-11.

Source:Talageri 2008