Mahmud of Ghazni

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Mahmud Ghaznavi
محمود غزنوی
File:Фирдуси читает поэму «Шах-Наме» шаху Махмуду Газневи (1913).jpg
Ferdowsi reads the Shahnameh to Mahmud of Ghazni (by Vardges Sureniants, 1913)[1]
Emir of Ghazna
Reign 998 – 1002
Predecessor Ismail
Successor Himself as sultan
Sultan of Ghazna
Reign 1002 – 30 April 1030
Predecessor Himself as Emir
Successor Muhammad
Born (971-11-02)2 November 971
Ghazna (now in Afghanistan)
Died Script error: No such module "age".
Spouse Kausari Jahan
Issue Jalal al-Dawla Muhammad
Shihab al-Dawla Masud
Izz al-Dawla Abd al-Rashid
Full name
Laqab: Yamin al-Dawla wa Amin al-Milla
Kunya: Abul-Qasim
Given name: Mahmud
Nisba: Ghaznawi
House House of Sabuktegin
Father Sabuktigin
Religion Sunni Islam

Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (Persian: یمین‌الدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین‎‎), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire. He conquered the eastern Iranian lands, modern Afghanistan, and the northwestern Indian subcontinent (modern Pakistan) from 997 to his death in 1030. Mahmud turned the former provincial city of Ghazna into the wealthy capital of an extensive empire that covered most of today's Afghanistan, eastern Iran and Pakistan , by looting the riches and wealth from the then Indian subcontinent.[2][3]

He was the first ruler to hold the title Sultan ("authority"), signifying the extent of his power while at the same time preserving an ideological link to the suzerainty of the Abbasid Caliphate. During his rule, he invaded and plundered parts of Hindustan (east of the Indus River) seventeen times.[3][4]

Early life and origin[edit]

Mahmud was born on Thursday, 10 Muharram, 361 AH/2 November 971 CE in the town of Ghazna in Medieval Khorasan (modern southeastern Afghanistan). His father, Sabuktigin, was a Turkic Mamluk who founded the Ghaznavid dynasty and was thus the first Ghaznavid Sultan Sebüktigin. His mother was the daughter of a Persian aristocrat from Zabulistan.[5] Mahmud had a younger brother, Yusuf Sebüktigin.


Mahmud married a woman named Kausari Jahan, and they had twin sons Mohammad and Ma'sud, who succeeded him one after the other; his grandson by Mas'ud, Maw'dud Ghaznavi, also later became ruler of the empire. His sister, Sitr-i-Mu'alla, was married to Dawood bin Ataullah Alavi, also known as Ghazi Salar Sahu, whose son was Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud

Mahmud's companion was a Georgian slave Malik Ayaz, and his love for him inspired poems and stories.[6]

Early career[edit]

File:Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin attacks the fortress of Zarang.jpg
Sultan Mahmud and his forces attacking the fortress of Zaranj

In 994 Mahmud joined his father Sabuktigin in the capture of Khorasan from the rebel Fa'iq in aid of the Samanid Emir, Nuh II. During this period, the Samanid Empire became highly unstable, with shifting internal political tides as various factions vied for control, the chief among them being Abu'l-Qasim Simjuri, Fa'iq, Abu Ali[citation needed], the General Bekhtuzin as well as the neighbouring Buyid dynasty and Kara-Khanid Khanate.


Mahmud took over his father's kingdom in 998 after defeating and capturing Ismail at the Battle of Ghazni. He then set out west from Ghazni to take the Kandahar region followed by Bost (Lashkar Gah), where he turned it into a militarised city.

Mahmud initiated the first of numerous invasion of North India. On 28 November 1001, his army fought and defeated the army of Raja Jayapala of the Kabul Shahis at the battle of Peshawar. In 1002 Mahmud invaded Sistan and dethroned Khalaf ibn Ahmad, ending the Saffarid dynasty.[7] From there he decided to focus on Hindustan to the southeast, particularly the highly fertile lands of the Punjab region.

Mahmud's first campaign to the south was against an Ismaili state first established at Multan in 965 by a da'i from the Fatimid Caliphate in a bid to carry political favor and recognition with the Abbasid Caliphate; he also engaged elsewhere with the Fatimids. At this point, Jayapala attempted to gain revenge for an earlier military defeat at the hands of Mahmud's father, who had controlled Ghazni in the late 980s and had cost Jayapala extensive territory. His son Anandapala succeeded him and continued the struggle to avenge his father's suicide. He assembled a powerful confederacy that suffered defeat as his elephant turned back from the battle at a crucial moment, turning the tide into Mahmud's favor once more at Lahore in 1008 and bringing Mahmud into control of the Shahi dominions of Udbandpura.[8]

Ghaznavid campaigns in Indian Subcontinent[edit]

File:Mahmud of Ghazni last success.jpg
Mahmud of Ghazni's last success in India against the Jats

Following the defeat of the Indian Confederacy, after deciding to retaliate for their combined resistance, Mahmud then set out on regular expeditions against them, leaving the conquered kingdoms in the hands of Hindu vassals and annexing only the Punjab region.[8] He also vowed to raid and loot the wealthy region of northwestern India every year.[2]

In 1001 Mahmud of Ghazni first invaded modern day Afghanistan and Pakistan and then parts of India. Mahmud defeated, captured, and later released the Shahi ruler Jayapala, who had moved his capital to Peshawar (modern Pakistan). Jayapala killed himself and was succeeded by his son Anandapala. In 1005 Mahmud of Ghazni invaded Bhatia (probably Bhera), and in 1006 he invaded Multan, at which time Anandapala's army attacked him. The following year Mahmud of Ghazni attacked and crushed Sukhapala, ruler of Bathinda (who had become ruler by rebelling against the Shahi kingdom). In 1013, during Mahmud's eighth expedition into eastern Afghanistan and Pakistan, the Shahi kingdom (which was then under Trilochanapala, son of Anandapala) was overthrown.[9]

In 1014 Mahmud led an expedition to Thanesar. The next year he unsuccessfully attacked Kashmir. In 1018 he attacked Mathura and defeated a coalition of rulers there while also killing a ruler called Chandrapala. In 1021 Mahmud supported the Kannauj king against Chandela Ganda, who was defeated. That same year Shahi Trilochanapala was killed at Rahib and his son Bhimapala succeeded him. Lahore (modern Pakistan) was annexed by Mahmud. Mahmud besieged Gwalior, in 1023, where he was given tribute. Mahmud attacked Somnath in 1025, and its ruler Bhima Deva I fled. The next year, he captured Somnath and marched to Kachch against Bhima Deva. That same year Mahmud also attacked the Jat people of Jud.[9]

The Indian kingdoms of Nagarkot, Thanesar, Kannauj, and Gwalior were all conquered and left in the hands of Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist kings as vassal states and he was pragmatic enough not to neglect making alliances and enlisting local peoples into his armies at all ranks. Since Mahmud never kept a permanent presence in the northwestern subcontinent, he engaged in a policy of destroying Hindu temples and monuments to crush any move by the Hindus to attack the Empire; Nagarkot, Thanesar, Mathura, Kannauj, Kalinjar(1023)[10] and Somnath all submitted or were raided.

Political challenges[edit]

The last four years of Mahmud's life were spent contending with the influx of Oghuz and Seljuk Turks from Central Asia and the Buyid dynasty. Initially, after being repulsed by Mahmud, the Seljuks retired to Khwarezm, but Togrül and Çagrı led them to capture Merv and Nishapur (1028–1029). Later, they repeatedly raided and traded territory with his successors across Khorasan and Balkh and even sacked Ghazni in 1037. In 1040, at the Battle of Dandanaqan, they decisively defeated Mahmud's son, Mas'ud I, resulting in Mas'ud abandoning most of his western territories to the Seljuks.

On his last conquest he got infected by malaria and Sultan Mahmud died on 30 April 1030. His mausoleum is located in Ghazni, Afghanistan.

Campaign timeline[edit]

As emir[edit]

  • 994: Gains the title of Saif ad-Dawla and becomes Governor of Khorasan under service to Nuh II of the Samanid Empire in civil strife
  • 995: The Samanid rebels Fa'iq (leader of a court faction that had defeated Alptigin's nomination for Emir) and Abu Ali expel Mahmud from Nishapur. Mahmud and Sabuktigin defeat Samanid rebels at Tus.

As sultan[edit]

  • 997: Kara-Khanid Khanate
  • 999: Khorasan, Balkh, Herat, Merv from the Samanids. A concurrent invasion from the north by the Qarakhanids under Elik Khan (Nasr Khan) ends Samanid rule.
  • 1000: Sistan from Saffarid dynasty
  • 1001: Gandhara: Sultan Mahmud defeats Raja Jayapala at Peshawar; Jayapala subsequently abdicates and commits suicide.
  • 1002: Seistan: Is imprisoned in Khuluf
  • 1004: Bhatia (Bhera) is annexed after it fails to pay its yearly tribute, 1004 CE
  • 1005-6: Multan: Fateh Daud, the Ismaili ruler of Multan[11] revolts and enlists the aid of Anandapala. Mahmud massacres the Ismailis[12][13] of Multan in the course of his conquest. Anandapala is defeated at Peshawar and pursued to Sodra (Wazirabad).

Ghor and Muhammad ibn Suri are then captured by Mahmud, made prisoner along with Muhammad ibn Suri's son, and taken to Ghazni, where Muhammad ibn Suri dies. Appoints Sewakpal to administer the region. Anandapala flees to Kashmir, fort in the hills on the western border of Kashmir.

Note: A historical narrative states in this battle, under the onslaught of the Gakhars, Mahmud's army was about to retreat when King Anandapala's elephant took flight and turned the tide of the battle.[citation needed]
  • 1010: Ghor; against Amir Suri
  • 1010: Multan revolts. Abul Fatah Dawood is imprisoned for life at Ghazni.
  • 1012-1013: Sacks Thanesar[14]
  • 1012: Invades Gharchistan and deposes its ruler Abu Nasr Muhammad.
  • 1012: Demands and receives remainder of the province of Khorasan from the Abassid Caliph. Then demands Samarkand as well but is rebuffed.
  • 1013: Bulnat: Defeats Trilochanpala.
  • 1014: Kafiristan is attacked
  • 1015: Mahmud's army sacks Lahore, but his expedition to Kashmir fails, due to inclement weather.[15]
  • 1015: Khwarezm: Marries his sister to Abul Abbas Mamun of Khwarezm, who dies in the same year in a rebellion. Moves to quell the rebellion and installs a new ruler and annexes a portion.
  • 1017: Kannauj, Meerut, and Muhavun on the Yamuna, Mathura and various other regions along the route. While moving through Kashmir he levies troops from vassal Prince for his onward march; Kannauj and Meerut submit without battle.
  • 1018-1020: Sacks the town of Mathura.[14]
  • 1021: Raises Ayaz to kingship, awarding him the throne of Lahore
  • 1021: Kalinjar attacks Kannauj: he marches to their aid and finds the last Shahi King, Trilochanpaala, encamped as well. No battle, the opponents leave their baggage trains and withdraw from the field. Also fails to take the fort of Lokote again. Takes Lahore on his return. Trilochanpala flees to Ajmer. First Muslim governors appointed east of the Indus River.
  • 1023: Lahore. He forces Kalinjar and Gwalior to submit and pay tribute:[16] Trilochanpala, the grandson of Jayapala, is assassinated by his own troops. Official annexation of Punjab by Ghazni. Also fails to take the Lohara fort on the western border of Kashmir for the second time.
  • 1024: Ajmer, Nehrwala, Kathiawar: This raid is his last major campaign. The concentration of wealth at Somnath was renowned, and consequently it became an attractive target for Mahmud, as it had previously deterred most invaders. The temple and citadel are sacked, and most of its defenders massacred.
  • 1024: Somnath: Mahmud sacks the temple and is reported to have personally hammered the temple's gilded Lingam to pieces, and the stone fragments are carted back to Ghazni, where they are incorporated into the steps of the city's new Jama Masjid (Friday Mosque) in 1026. He places a new king on the throne in Gujarat as a tributary. His return detours across the Thar Desert to avoid the armies of Ajmer and other allies on his return.
  • 1025: Marches against the Jats of the Jood mountains who harry his army on its return from the sack of Somnath.
  • 1027: Rey, Isfahan, Hamadan from the Buyids Dynasty.
  • 1028, 1029: Merv, Nishapur are lost to Seljuq dynasty

Attitude on religion and jihad[edit]

Following Mahmud's recognition by the Abbasid caliphate in 999, he pledged a jihad and a raid on India every year.[17] In 1005 Mahmud conducted a series of campaigns during which the Ismailis of Multan were massacred.[18]

In the context of his religious policies toward Hindus, modern historians such as Romila Thapar and Richard M. Eaton have commented that his policies were in contrast to his general image in the modern era.[19]

Thapar writes:

Of the mercenaries, not an insubstantial number were Indians and, presumably, Hindus. Indian soldiers under their commander, referred to as Suvendhary, remained loyal to Mahmud. They had their own commander, the sipasalar-i-Hinduwan, lived in their own quarter in Ghazni and continued with their religion. When the Turkish commander of the troops rebelled, the command was given to a Hindu, Tilak, and he is commended for his loyalty. Complaints are made about the severity with which Muslims and Christians were killed by Indian troops fighting for Mahmud in Seistan.[20]

Mohammad Habib states that there was no imposition of Jizya on "non-Muslims" during the reign of Mahmud of Ghazni nor any mention of "forced conversions":

[H]is (Mahmud's) expeditions against India were not motivated by religion but by love of plunder.[21]

Attack on the Somnath Temple[edit]

File:Tomb of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in 1839-40.jpg
A painting of the tomb of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, in 1839–40, with sandalwood doors long believed to have been plundered from Somnath, which he destroyed in c. 1024, but later found to be replicas of the original

In 1024 Mahmud raided Gujarat, plundering the Somnath temple and breaking its jyotirlinga. He took away a booty of 2 crore dinars.[22][23] Historians estimate the damage to the temple to have been minimal because there are records of pilgrimages to the temple in 1038 that make no mention of any damage.[24] However, powerful legends with intricate detail had developed regarding Mahmud's raid in the Turko-Persian literature,[25] which "electrified" the Muslim world according to scholar Meenakshi Jain.[26]

Historiography concerning Somnath[edit]

Historians including Thapar, Eaton, and A. K. Majumdar have questioned the iconoclastic historiography of this incident. Thapar quoted Majmudar (1956):

But, as is well known, Hindu sources do not give any information regarding the raids of Sultan Mahmud, so that what follows is based solely on the testimony of Muslim authors.[27]

Thapar also argued against the prevalent narrative:

Yet in a curiously contradictory manner, the Turko-Persian narratives were accepted as historically valid and even their internal contradictions were not given much attention, largely because they approximated more closely to the current European sense of history than did the other sources.[28]

File:Silver jitals of Mahmud of Ghazna with bilingual Arabic and Sanskrit minted in Lahore 1208.jpg
Silver jitals of Mahmud of Ghazna with bilingual Arabic and Sanskrit minted in Lahore 1028. avyaktam-eka (La ilaha illAllah) Muhammada avtāra (Muhammad Rasulullah) Nrpati Mahamuda ..

The 17 battles[edit]

1. Frontier Towns, A.D. 1000.[edit]

2. Peshawar Waihind, 1001-2[edit]

Against Jayapal whose army consisted of 12,000 cavalry, 30,pCK>/-- 1.5,000,Indians ..-.were, .killed/. Capftvcy/, taken by Mahmud 500,000 of both sexes (Utbi). Elliot's fieure is 5,000 killed (vol. II, p. 438)

Then Mahmud captured Waihind-.-Figures of the killed and captured have not been given by any chronicler. It may be pre¬ sumed that a number equal to the one killed at Peshawar was killed at Waihind also because it was -‘a very important and thickly popu¬ lated city.”

3. Bhera (Bhatia) A.D. 1004-05.[edit]

, The city was as wealthy as imagination can conceive in pro¬ perty, armies and military weapons. Fighting for four days and nights. Number of casualties not given. Raja Bijai Rai committed suicide. “The army of the Sultan moved on, committing slabshter and pillage..-(and captured) usual share of property. He remained at Bhatia till he had cleaned it from pollution.” Ail the inhabitants of the palace, except those who became converts to Islam, were put to the sword (Utbi).

4. Multan, A.D. 1005-06.[edit]

> Ibn Asir, Mir Khwand and Haider Razi make the ruler Daud flee to Ceylon. Utbi says that a fine of 20,000,000 dirhams was levied from the inhabitants (Even if an average of 100 dirhams paid for each man, it should be a town of about 200,000 people).

Unsuri informs that on the way at Multan Mahmud took 200 forts (killing 200,000 in the process). According to Utbi Mahmud marched on indulging in "slaughter, imprisonment, pillage, de¬ population and fire,”

5. Against Nawasa Shah A.D. 1007.[edit]

, After defeating Nawasa Shah, Mahmud "cut down the harvest of idolatry'with the sickle of his sword and spear.” This and the previous victory (at Multan) were witnesses “to his exalted state of prosciytism” (Utbi). But no figures of the slain or captured are given.

6. Waihind, Nngarkol, A.D. 1008-09.[edit]

Utbi. Battle at Waihind and then fight with Brahmapal, the son of Anandpal and “grinding stone of slaughter revolved.” Battle from morning til! evening. The victors slew the vanquished wher¬ ever they were found (in retreat 1) in jungles, passes, plains -and hills. March towards Nagarkot. Fort of Bhimnagar captured with immense booty.

FcrKhwh. Mahmud marched nvimr-i Anandpah Fr,j;r-> of Vjjffhi. Gwalior, Km ho jar, Delhi and A finer joined Anandpab Z-ighfmg near Petbawar. Gakkhmcs held ahn joined. Abe>Ui 5dyjft) infidel Oak kh,irs penetrated Mahmud’- lines. An and pars elephant fled. $,000 Hindus were killed in the tetrcui. (How many in utrimn, battles ? ZfvvO ?j No figure#, given.

7. Tarnin, A.D, Id IQ,[edit]

Uthh “nr,'ends of God committed slaughter in every hill,and vtihtn. Sullan returned nit h plunder. After n jaipal otic fed an Indian contingent of 2.OU0 men a> part of the annual tribtue, The tropps were sent at leas! for the next five scars (there is evidence that they were sent ir, 1015).

8. Multan, A.D. 10? J.[edit]

Mirfll-i-MtiiUdi, After this second invasion and plunder of Mtiitsn. It was decried, A muni pa! fled to Ucch,

9. Ninduna, Kashmir Valiev, A.D. 1014,[edit]

T .A. t Mahmud “obtained great spoil and a large number of slaves. Figures of the killed not given. About ptboners of war l-dbi says, “and *knev were so plentiful shat they became very cheap; and men of rcxpcUabihty in their native land (India? were degraded in becoming .*laves of common shopkeepers (in Gha?ni) ”

10. Thanesar, A.D, 1015,[edit]

Ufbl t “The blood of the infidels flowed so copiously that tne stream was di? coloured... a no people were unable to drink it, ihc Sultan returned with plunder which it is impossible to recount* 1 . But he does not give am figures. Femhrah; “On this occasion the Muhammadan army brought to Gha/nin 2.On,r*O0 captives, so that the capita! (Gha/na) appealed like an Indian city, for ever) soldier of the army had several skives ami slave gob “

11 Lohkot, A.D, 1016 .[edit]

f emhtab t “The SuHcn suffered much because of the snow in Kashmir Ketumeo.

12, Kannauj, Mtubsmi[edit]

tnhi. Khwandr/di’. NT&tnt addin, pcfbntih, Mahmud takes Thus/w ero* wag she Jtmtoa rakcv Mmhufa* and fhtn rccTOisiop the ruvt proceeds to Kansas].

Number of killed not given but considering the description of the battle must have been considerable. “Many infidels were,..slain or taken prisoners in this sudden attack, and the Musalmans paid no regard to the booty till they had satiated themselves with the slaughter of the infidels.”

In Mahaban “nearly 50,000 were killed and drowned” (Utbi). Much booty with slaves collected.

On his return march to Kanauj, “the Sultan levelled to the ground every fort... He colle-cted so much booty, prisoners and wealth, that the fingers of those who counted them would have been tired.” (Utbi).

In Kanauj proper “many effected their escape” and “were scattered abroad” and “those who did not fly were put to death.” Soldiers were given leave to plunder and take prisoners.

In the fort of Munj, Manj, or Manaich which held out for fifteen days (Ferishtah), most people were killed and many others w'hile escaping Similar things happened at Asi (Utbi).

On return to Ghazni the booty was found to consist (besides huge wealth) 53,000 captives (T.A.). But Utbi is more detailed. Ho says that “the number of prisoners may be conceived from the fact, that each was sold for from two to ten dirhams. These were afterwards taken to Ghazna, and the merchants came from distant cities to purchase them, so that the countries of Mawarau-n-nahr, Iraq and Khurasan were filled with them”. The Tarikh-i-Alfi adds that the fifth share due to the Saiyads was 150,000 slaves. If that be true the total number of prisoners was 750,000.

13. Battle of Rahib, A.D. 1020-21.[edit]

Figures of killed, captured etc., not given but “some of the infidels asked for mercy after being wounded, some were taken prisoners, some were killed, and the rest took to flight (Utbi). Immense booty fell into the hands of the Musalmans (T.A.) which must have included prisoners.

14. Kirat, Nur, Lolikot and Lahore, A.D. 1021-22.[edit]

Mahmud first attacked Kirat. Sahin Ali ibn liar was sent to reduce Nur. Lohkot in Kashmir was attacked but without much success. Lahore and its neighbouring country was occupied. From now Punjab formed a province of Mahmud’s empire. (T.A.).

15. Gwalior/Kalinjar A.D. 1022-23.[edit]

No figures available.

16 Somnath 1025.[edit]

On she way m Somnath Mahmud came upon “several forts*.* „ He killed the people "aho were m these places.{later} he me!

2 CM WO Sigh Ong men..,, put them to slight and plundered their possessions^ (Then) macche-J to Dahalwarnh...Mahmud tool the place attd slew the men.’ 5

At Somnath there was a “fearful slaughter/’ ‘‘A dreadful skiUghter followed at the pate of the temple”. At Somfiath “the number of the slain exceeded 50,000“ (Ibn-ul-Asir),

After Somnath. Mahmud marched against Raja Bhi/n, chief of Kahrwala. “His whole property, with numerous prisoners, fell into the hands of the army of Islam. All men who were found in the fort were put to the sword”.

17, Against Jats of Jud, A.IV 1(125-21,[edit]

Most of the Jats were drowned, and those who were not so destroyed were put to the sword. The Sultan’s army proceeded to the places where their families were concealed, and took them all prisoners, (T.A.).


Coins of Mahmud with the Islamic declaration of faith. Obverse legend with the name of the caliph al-Qadir bi-llah (in the fifth line). Reverse legend: Muhammad Rasul/Allah Yamin al-Daw/la wa-Amin al-Milla/Mahmud.

Under the reign of Mahmud of Ghazni, the region broke away from the Samanid sphere of influence. While he acknowledged the Abbasids as caliph as a matter of form, he was also granted the title Sultan in recognition of his independence.

By the end of his reign, the Ghaznavid Empire extended from Ray in the west to Samarkand in the north-east, and from the Caspian Sea to the Yamuna. Although his raids carried his forces across South Asia, only a portion of the Punjab and of Sindh in modern-day Pakistan came under his semi-permanent rule; Kashmir, the Doab, Rajasthan, and Gujarat remained under the control of the local Hindu dynasties.

The booty brought back to Ghazni was enormous, and contemporary historians (e.g. Abolfazl Beyhaghi, Ferdowsi) give descriptions of the magnificence of the capital, as well as of the conqueror's munificent support of literature. He transformed Ghazni, the first centre of Persian literature,[29] into one of the leading cities of Central Asia, patronizing scholars, establishing colleges, laying out gardens, and building mosques, palaces, and caravansaries. Mahmud brought whole libraries from Ray and Isfahan to Ghazni. He even demanded that the Khwarizmshah court send its men of learning to Ghazni.[30]

Mahmud patronized the notable poet Ferdowsi, who after laboring 27 years, went to Ghazni and presented the Shahnameh to him. There are various stories in medieval texts describing the lack of interest shown by Mahmud to Ferdowsi and his life's work. According to historians, Mahmud had promised Ferdowsi a dinar for every distich written in the Shahnameh (which would have been 60,000 dinars), but later retracted his promise and presented him with dirhams (20,000 dirhams), at that time the equivalent of only 200 dinars. His expedition across the Gangetic plains in 1017 inspired Al-Biruni to compose his Tarikh Al-Hind in order to understand the Indians and their beliefs. During Mahmud's rule, universities were founded to study various subjects such as mathematics, religion, the humanities, and medicine.

On 30 April 1030 Sultan Mahmud died in Ghazni at the age of 59. Sultan Mahmud had contracted malaria during his last invasion. The medical complication from malaria had caused lethal tuberculosis.

The Ghaznavid Empire was ruled by his successors for 157 years. The expanding Seljuk empire absorbed most of the Ghaznavid west. The Ghorids captured Ghazni in 1150, and Mu'izz al-Din (also known as Muhammad of Ghori) captured the last Ghaznavid stronghold at Lahore in 1187.

The military of Pakistan has named its short-range ballistic missile the Ghaznavi Missile in honour of Mahmud of Ghazni, .[31] In addition, the Pakistan Military Academy, where cadets are trained to become officers of the Pakistan Army, also gives tribute to Mahmud of Ghazni by naming one of its twelve companies Ghaznavi Company.


  • The Sultan learnt that in the country of Tanesar there were large elephants of the Sailaman (Ceylon) breed, celebrated for military purposes. The chief of Tanesar was on this account obstinate in his infidelity and denial of God. So the Sultan marched against him with his valiant warriors, for the purpose of planting the standards of Islam and extirpatiug idolatry. He marched through a desert which no one had yet crossed, except birds and wild beasts, for the foot of man and the shoe of horse had not traversed it. There was no water in it, much less any other kind of food. The Sultán was the first to whom God had granted a passage over this desert, in order that he might arrive at the accomplishment of his wishes.
    • The History of India as Told by Its Own Historians: The Muhammadan Period - Volume II (page 40)
  • Beneath it (Tanesar?) flowed a, pure stream; the bottom was covered with large stones, and its banks were precipitous and sharp as the points of arrows. The Sultan had reached this river where it takes its course through a hill-pass, behind which the infidels had posted themselves, in the rear of their elephants, with a large number of infantry and cavalry. The Sultan adopted the stratagem of ordering some of his troops to cross the river by two different fords, and to attack the enemy on both sides; and when they were all engaged in close conflict, he ordered another body of men to go up the bank of the stream, which was flowing through the pass with fearful impetuosity, and attack the enemy amongst the ravines, where they were posted in the greatest number. The battle raged fiercely, and about evening, after a vigorous attack on thepart of the Musulmáns, the enemy fled, leaving their elephants, which were all driven into the camp of the Sultán, except one, which ran off and could not be found. The largest were reserved for the Sultán.
  • The blood of the infidels flowed so copiously , that the stream was discoloured, notwithstanding its purity, and people were unable to drink it. Had not night come on and concealed the traces of their flight, much more of the enemey would have been slain. The victory was gained by god’s grace, who has established Islam forever as the best of religions, notwithstanding that idolaters revolt against it.
    • The History of India as Told by Its Own Historians: The Muhammadan Period - Volume II (pages 40-41). ; Utbi (court historian) cited in Andrew Bostom: Legacy of Jihad, p 631-2, 83, 445
  • The Sultan invested and captured the fort, notwithstanding its strength and height. Here he got plenty of supplies and booty, but he did not obtain the real object of his desire, which was to seize Chand Rai, and which he now determined to effect by proceeding in pursuit of him. Accordingly, after marching fifteen parsangs through the forest, which was so thorny that the faces of his men were scarified and bloody and through stony tracts which battered and injured the horses' shoes, he at last came up to his enemy, shortly before midnight on the 25th of Sha'ban (6th January, 1019 A.D.). They had travelled over high and low ground without any marked road, not like merchants of Hazramaut travelling at ease with their mantles at ease arouns them.
  • The Sultan summoned the most religiously disposed of his followers, and ordered them to attack the enemy immediately. Many infidels were consequently slain or taken prisoner in this sudden attack, and the Musulmans paid no regard to the booty till they had satiated themselves with the slaughter of the infidels and the worshippers of sun and fire. The friends of god searched the bodies of the slain for 3 whole days in order to obtain booty.”
    • The History of India as Told by Its Own Historians: The Muhammadan Period - Volume II (page 49). ; Utbi (court historian) cited in Andrew Bostom: Legacy of Jihad, p 631-2, 83, 445


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  1. [archive]
  2. 2.0 2.1 Saunders 1947, p. 162.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Heathcote 1995, p. 6.
  4. Anjum 2007, p. 234.
  5. Bosworth 1991, p. 65.
  6. Neill 2008, p. 308.
  7. Bosworth 1963, p. 89.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1977, p. 3-4.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Barnett 1999, p. 74-78.
  10. Khan 2007, p. 66.
  11. Blank 2001, p. 37.
  12. Hanifi 1964, p. 21.
  13. Daftary 2005, p. 68.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Barua 2005, p. 27.
  15. Chandra 2006, p. 18.
  16. Kumar 2008, p. 127.
  17. Qassem 2009, p. 19.
  18. Virani 2007, p. 100.
  19. Eaton 2000, p. 63.
  20. Thapar 2005, p. 40.
  21. Habib 1965, p. 77.
  22. Yagnik & Sheth 2005, pp. 39–40.
  23. Thapar 2005, pp. 36–37.
  24. Thapar 2005, p. 75.
  25. Thapar 2005, Chapter 3.
  26. Meenakshi Jain (21 March 2004). "Review of Romila Thapar's "Somanatha, The Many Voices of a History"" [archive]. The Pioneer. Retrieved 2014-12-15.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. A. K. Majumdar, Chalukyas of Gujarat (Bombay, 1956), quoted in Thapar 2005, p. 16
  28. Thapar 2005, p. 14.
  29. "Arts, Islamic". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 20 October 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. Bosworth 1963, p. 132.
  31. Ramachandran 2005.


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