Lodi dynasty

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The Lodi dynasty (or Lodhi) was an Afghan dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1451 to 1526. It was the last dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, and was founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi when he replaced the Sayyid dynasty.


Sikandar Lodi[edit]

  • Khawãs Khãn, who was the predecessor of Mîãn Bhûa, having been ordered by the Sultãn [Sikandar Lodi] to march towards Nagarkot, in order to bring the hill country under subjection, succeeded in conquering it, and having sacked the infidels temple of Debi Shankar, brought away the stone which they worshipped, together with a copper umbrella, which was placed over it, and on which a date was engraved in Hindu characters, representing it to be two thousand years old. When the stone was sent to the King, it was given over to the butchers to make weights out of it for the purpose of weighing their meat. From the copper of the umbrella, several pots were made, in which water might be warmed, and which were placed in the masjids and the Kings own palace, so that everyone might wash his hands, feet and face in them and perform" his purifications before prayers.
    • Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, 8 Volumes, Allahabad Reprint, 1964. Eliot and Dowson, Vol. IV, pp. 544 ff
  • It is also related of this prince, that before his accession, when a crowd of Hindûs had assembled in immense numbers at Kurkhet, he wished to go to Thãnesar for the purpose of putting them all to death...'He was so zealous a Musalmãn that he utterly destroyed divers places of worship of the infidels, and left not a vestige remaining of them. He entirely ruined the shrines of Mathurã, the mine of heathenism, and turned other principal Hindu places of worship into caravansarais and colleges. Their stone images were given to the butchers to serve them as meat-weight, and all the Hindus in Mathurã were strictly prohibited from shaving their heads and beards, and performing their ablutions...'In that year the Sultãn sent Khawãs Khãn to take possession of the fort of Dhûlpûr. The Rãjã of that place advanced to give battle, and daily fighting took place. The instant His Majesty heard of the firm countenance shown by the rãî of Dhûlpûr in opposing the royal army, he went there in person; but on his arrival near Dhûlpûr, the rãî made up his mind to fly without fighting' He (Sikandar) offered up suitable thanksgivings for his success, and the royal troops spoiled and plundered in all directions, rooting up all the trees of the gardens which shaded Dhûlpûr to the distance of seven kos. Sultãn Sikandar stayed there during one month, erected a mosque on the site of an idol-temple, and then set off towards Ãgra...Sultãn Sikandar passed the rainy season of that year at Ãgra. After the rising of the star Canopus, he assembled an army, and set forth to take possession of Gwãlior and territories belonging to it. In a short space of time he took most of the Gwãlior district, and after building mosques in the places of idol-temples returned towards Ãgra...'Sultãn Sikandar, after the lapse of two years, in AH 913 (AD 1507) wrote a farmãn to Jalãl Khãn, the governor of Kãlpî, directing him to take possession of the fort of Narwar' Jalãl Khãn Lodî, by the Sultãn's command, besieged Narwar, where Sultãn Sikandar also joined him with great expedition. The siege of the fort was protracted for one year' Men were slain on both sides. After the time above mentioned, the defenders of the place were compelled, by the want of water and scarcity of grain, to ask for mercy, and they were allowed to go forth with their property; but the Sultãn destroyed their idol-temples, and erected mosques on their sites. He then appointed stipends and pensions for the learned and the pious who dwelt at Narwar, and gave them dwellings there. He remained six months encamped below the fort.'
    • Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, 8 Volumes, Allahabad Reprint, 1964. Eliot and Dowson, Vol. IV, pp. 439-467
  • In his time Hindû temples were razed to the ground, and neither name nor vestige of them was allowed to remain.
    • Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, 8 Volumes, Allahabad Reprint, 1964. Eliot and Dowson, Vol. IV, pp. 187
  • Sikandar himself marched on Friday, the 6th Ramzãn AH 906 (AD March, 1501), upon Dhûlpûr; but Rãjã Mãnikdeo, placing a garrison in the fort, retreated to Gwãlior. This detachment however, being unable to defend it, and abandoning the fort by night, it fell into the hands of the Muhammadan army. Sikandar on entering the fort, fell down on his knees, and returned thanks to God, and celebrated his victory. The whole army was employed in plundering and the groves which spread shade for seven kos around Bayãna were tom up from the roots'...'In Ramzãn of the year 910 (AD 1504), after the rising of Canopus, he raised the standard of war for the reduction of the fort of Mandrãil; but the garrison capitulating, and delivering up the citadel, the Sultãn ordered the temples and idols to be demolished, and mosques to be constructed. After leaving Mîãn Makan and Mujãhid Khãn to protect the fort, he himself moved out on a plundering expedition into the surrounding country, where he butchered many people, took many prisoners, and devoted to utter destruction all the groves and habitations; and after gratifying and honouring himself by this exhibition of holy zeal he returned to his capital Bayãna.'...'In 912, after the rising of Canopus, the Sultãn went towards the fort of Awantgar' ...On the 23rd of the month, the Sultãn invested the fort, and ordered the whole army to put forth their best energies to capture it' All of a sudden, by the favour of God, the gale of victory blew on the standards of the Sultãn, and the gate was forced open by Malik 'Alãu-d dîn' The Rãjpûts, retiring within their own houses, continued the contest, and slew their families after the custom of jauhar' After due thanks-giving for his victory, the Sultãn gave over charge of the fort to Makan and Mujãhîd Khãn, with directions that they should destroy the idol temples, and raise mosques in their places
    • Elliot and Dowson, Vol. V, p. 97-101 . Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, 8 Volumes, Allahabad Reprint, 1964.
  • One day he ordered that an expedition be sent to Thaneswar, (the tanks at) Kurkaksetra should be filled up with earth, and the land measured and allotted to pious people for their maintenance, He was such a great partisan of Islãm in the days of his youth..... Sultãn Sikandar led a very pious life Islãm was regarded very highly in his reign. The infidels could not muster the courage to worship idols or bathe in the (sacred) streams. During his holy reign, idols were hidden underground. The stone (idol) of Nagarkot, which had misled the (whole) world, was brought and handed over to butchers so that they might weigh meat with it.
    • Tãrîkh-i-Shãhî, by Ahmad Yãdgãr, in: Uttara Taimûra Kãlîna Bhãrata, Persian texts translated into Hindi by S.A.A. Rizvi, 2 Volumes, Aligarh, 1958-59. p. 322-331 ff Vol I, In Goel, S.R. Hindu Temples - What happened to them
  • He got the temples of the infidels destroyed. No trace of infidelity was left at the place in Mathurã where the infidels used to take bath. He got caravanserais constructed so that people could stay there, and also the shops of various professionals such as the butchers, bãwarchîs, nãnbãîs and sweetmeatsellers. If a Hindu went there for bathing even by mistake, he was made to lose his limbs and punished severely. No Hindu could get shaved at that place. No barber would go near a Hindu, whatever be the payment offered.
    • Wãqiãt-i-Mushtãqî, by Shykh Rizqullãh Mushtãqî, in: Uttara Taimûra Kãlîna Bhãrata, Persian texts translated into Hindi by S.A.A. Rizvi, 2 Volumes, Aligarh, 1958-59. Vol I. p. 102 ff, and In Goel, S.R. Hindu Temples - What happened to them
  • Why does the monstrous men of an Alauddin Khalji, a Firuz Shah Tughlaq, a Sikandar Lodi, and an Aurangzeb, to name only the most notorious, pop out so soon from the thickest coat of cosmetics?
    The answer is provided by the Muslim historians of medieval India. They painted their heroes in the indelible dyes of Islamic ideology. They did not anticipate the day when Islamic imperialism in India will become only a painful memory of the past. They did not visualise that the record of Islam in India will one day be weighed on the scales of human values.
    • Sita Ram Goel: The Story of Islamic Imperialism in India
  • After the rainy season was over, he marched in Ramzãn AH 910 (AD February-March, 1505) for the conquest of the fort of MunDrãil. He stayed for a month near Dholpur and sent out armies with orders that they should lay waste the environs of Gwãlior and MunDrãil. Thereafter he himself laid siege to the fort of MunDrãil. Those inside the fort surrendered the fort to him after signing a treaty. The Sultãn got the temples demolished and mosques erected in their stead...'After the rainy season was over, he led an expedition towards the fort of Udit Nagar in AH 912 (AD 1506-07)'...Although those inside the fort tried their utmost to seek a pardon, but he did not listen to them, and the fort was breached at many points and conquered' The Sultãn thanked Allãh in die wake of his victory' He got the temples demolished and mosques constructed in their stead...'After the rainy season was over, he made up his mind to take possession of the fort of Narwar which was in the domain of Mãlwã. He ordered Jalãl Khãn Lodî, the governor of Kãlpî, to go there and besiege the fort' The Sultãn himself reached Narwar after some time' He kept the fort under siege for an year' The soldiers went out to war everyday and got killed' ...'Thereafter the inhabitants of the fort were in plight due to scarcity of water and dearness of grains, and they asked for forgiveness. They went out with their wealth and property. The Sultãn laid waste the temples and raised mosques. Men of learning and students were made to reside there and given scholarships and grants. He stayed for six months under the walls of the fort.'...'He was a stout partisan of Islãm and made great endeavours on this score. He got all temples of the infidels demolished, and did not allow even a trace of them to remain. In Mathurã, where the infidels used to get together for bathing, he got constructed caravanserais, markets, mosques and madrasas, and appointed there officers with instructions that they should allow no one to bathe; if any Hindû desired to get his beard or head shaved in the city of Mathurã, no barber was prepared to cut his hair.
    • Tabqãt-i-Akharî, Translated from the Hindi version by S.A.A. Rizvi included in Uttara Taimûr Kãlîna Bhãrata, Aligarb, 1958. Vol. I, In Goel, S.R. Hindu Temples - What happened to them
  • At the time of his return he restored the fort of Dholpur also to Binãyik Deo, and having spent the rainy season in Ãgra after the rising of the Canopus in the year AH 910 (AD 1504), marched to reduce the fortress of Mandrãyal, which lie took without fighting from the Rãjah of Mandrãyal, who sued for peace; he also destroyed all the idol-temples and churches of the place...'And in the year AH 912 (AD 1506), after the rising of the Canopus, he marched against the fortress of ÛntgaRh and laid siege to it, and many of his men joyfully embraced martyrdom, after that he took the fort and gave the infidels as food to the sword' He then cast down the idol-temples, and built there lofty mosques.'183
    • Muntakhãbut-Tawãrikh, translated into English by George S.A. Ranking, Patna Reprint 1973, Vol. I, p. 420-22
  • 'Sikundur Lody, having returned to Dholpoor, reinstated the Raja Vinaik Dew, and then marching to Agra, he resolved to make that city his capital. He stayed in Agra during the rains, but in the year AH 910 (AD 1504), marched towards Mundril. Having taken that place, he destroyed the Hindoo temples, and caused mosques to be built in their stead.'...'Having returned to Agra, the King proceeded in the year AH 912 (AD 1506) towards the fort of Hunwuntgur, despairing of reducing Gualiar. Hunwuntgur fell in a short time, and the Rajpoot garrison was put to the sword, the temples were destroyed, and mosques ordered to be built in their stead...In the following year (AH 913, AD 1506), the king marched against Nurwur, a strong fort in the district of Malwa, then in possession of the Hindoos. The Prince Julal Khan governor of Kalpy, was directed to advance and invest the place; and should the Hindoos resist, he was required to inform the King' The King remained for the space of six months at Nurwur, breaking down temples, and building mosques. He also established a college there, and placed therein many holy and learned men.'...He was firmly attached to the Mahomedan religion, and made a point of destroying all Hindoo temples. In the city of Mutra he caused musjids and bazars to be built opposite the bathing-stairs leading to the river and ordered that no Hindoos should be allowed to bathe there. He forbade the barbers to shave the beards and beads of the inhabitants, in order to prevent the Hindoos following their usual practices at such pilgrimages
    • Tãrîkh-i-Firishta, translated by John Briggs under the title History of the Rise of the Mahomedan Power in India, first published in 1829, New Delhi Reprint 1981, Vol. I, p.338-343
  • The Sultãn set out for conquering the fort of Narwar. Those inside the fort asked for refuge when they became helpless because of the dearness of grains and scarcity of water; they sought security of their lives and left the fort together with their goods. The Sultãn took over the fort, demolished the temples and idol-houses in it and built mosques, and fixed scholarships and stipends for the teachers and the taught. He resided for six months in the fort.'...'The Islamic sentiment (in him) was so strong that he demolished all temples in his kingdom and left no trace of them. He constructed sarãis, bazãrs, madrasas and mosques in Mathurã which is a holy place of the Hindûs and where they go for bathing. He appointed government officials in order to see that no Hindû could bathe in Mathrã. No barber was permitted to shave the head of any Hindû with his razor. That is how he completely curtailed the public celebration of infidel customs...'Sultãn Sikandar was yet a young boy when he heard about a tank in Thãnesar which the Hindûs regarded as sacred and went for bathing in it. He asked the theologians about the prescription of the Shari'ah on this subject. They replied that it was permitted to demolish the ancient temples and idol-houses of the infidels, but it was not proper for him to stop them from going to an ancient tank. Hearing this reply, the prince drew out his sword and thought of beheading the theologian concerned, saying that he (the theologian) was siding with the infidels
    • Tãrîkh-i-Khãn Jahãn Lodî, Translated from the Urdu version by Muhammad Bashîr Husain, second edition, Lahore, 1986, pp. 172-179. In Goel S.R. Hindu Temples What Happened to them. Tãrîkh-i-Khãn Jahãnî wa Makhzan-i-Afghãnî of Khwãjah Niamatallãh Harwî, translated into Urdu by Muhammad Bashîr Husain, second edition, Lahore, 1986.
  • His faith (bigotry) in Islam was to that extent, that he went beyond the bounds even of excess. He levelled to the ground all the places of worship of the kafirs ; and left neither their name nor any vestige of them. In Mathurah and other places, where there are places for the ablution of the Hindus, he built serais, and bazaars, and mosques, and colleges, and employed men to prevent the Hindus from bathing. If any Hindu wanted to shave his beard or head in Mathurah, the barber refused to place his hand on his beard or head ; and he completely abolished all heathenish practices by public orders. He forbade the annual procession of the lance of Salar Masa'ud. He also prohibited the going of women to the tombs of holy men.
    • The Tabaqat-i-akbari Of Khwajah-Nizamuddin-Ahmad, Volume 1 [1]

Ibrahim Lodi[edit]

  • At the same time the Sultãn thought that though 'Sultãn Sikandar had led several expeditions for conquering the fort of Gwãlior and the country attached to it but met with no success.' Consequently he sent 'Ãzam Humãyûn, the governor of Karã, with 300,000 horsemen and 300 elephants for the conquest of Gwãlior' After some time the royal army laid a mine, filled it with gunpowder, and set fire to it. He entered the fort and took possession of it after the wall of the fort was breached. He saw there a bull made of brass, which the Hindûs had worshipped for years. In keeping with a royal order, the bull was brought to Delhî and placed at the Baghdãd Gate. It was still there till the reign of Akbar. The writer of this history saw it himself.
    • Tabqãt-i-Akharî, Translated from the Hindi version by S.A.A. Rizvi included in Uttara Taimûr Kãlîna Bhãrata, Aligarh, 1955, Vol. I, p. 236-37, In Goel, S.R. Hindu Temples - What happened to them

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