From Dharmapedia Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range. Today, it denotes a larger area that includes the Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir (subdivided into Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh divisions), the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, and Chinese-administered territories of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract.[1][2][3]

In the first half of the 1st millennium, the Kashmir region became an important centre of Hinduism and later of Buddhism; later still, in the ninth century, Kashmir Shaivism arose.[4] In 1339, Shah Mir became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, inaugurating the Salatin-i-Kashmir or Swati dynasty.[5] Kashmir was part of the Mughal Empire from 1586 to 1751,[6] and thereafter, until 1820, of the Afghan Durrani Empire.[5] That year, the Sikhs, under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir.[5] In 1846, after the Sikh defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War, and upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, became the new ruler of Kashmir. The rule of his descendants, under the paramountcy (or tutelage) of the British Crown, lasted until 1947, when the former princely state of the British Indian Empire became a disputed territory, now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and China.[1][2]


The Sanskrit word for Kashmir was (káśmīra).[7] The Nilamata Purana describes the Valley's origin from the waters, a lake called Sati-saras.[8][9] A popular, but uncertain, local etymology of Kashmira is that it is land desiccated from water.[10]

An alternative, but also uncertain, etymology derives the name from the name of the sage Kashyapa who is believed to have settled people in this land. Accordingly, Kashmir would be derived from either kashyapa-mir (Kashyapa's Lake) or kashyapa-meru (Kashyapa's Mountain).[10]

The Ancient Greeks called the region Kasperia which has been identified with Kaspapyros of Hecataeus of Miletus (apud Stephanus of Byzantium) and Kaspatyros of Herodotus (3.102, 4.44). Kashmir is also believed to be the country meant by Ptolemy's Kaspeiria.[citation needed]

Cashmere is an archaic spelling of present-Kashmir, and in some countries it is still spelled this way.

In the Kashmiri language, Kashmir itself is known as Kasheer.[11]


Hinduism and Buddhism in Kashmir[edit]

File:Buddhist tope baramula1868.jpg
This general view of the unexcavated Buddhist stupa near Baramulla, with two figures standing on the summit, and another at the base with measuring scales, was taken by John Burke in 1868. The stupa, which was later excavated, dates to 500 CE.

During ancient and medieval period, Kashmir has been an important centre for the development of a Hindu-Buddhist syncretism, in which Madhyamaka and Yogacara were blended with Saivism and Advaita Vedanta. The Buddhist Mauryan emperor Ashoka is often credited with having founded the old capital of Kashmir, Shrinagari, now ruins on the outskirts of modern Srinagar. Kashmir was long to be a stronghold of Buddhism.[12] As a Buddhist seat of learning, the Sarvāstivādan school strongly influenced Kashmir.[13] East and Central Asian Buddhist monks are recorded as having visited the kingdom. In the late 4th century CE, the famous Kuchanese monk Kumārajīva, born to an Indian noble family, studied Dīrghāgama and Madhyāgama in Kashmir under Bandhudatta. He later became a prolific translator who helped take Buddhism to China. His mother Jīva is thought to have retired to Kashmir. Vimalākṣa, a Sarvāstivādan Buddhist monk, travelled from Kashmir to Kucha and there instructed Kumārajīva in the Vinayapiṭaka.

Karkota Empire (625 CE – 885 CE) was a powerful Hindu empire, which originated in the region of Kashmir.[14] It was founded by Durlabhvardhana during the lifetime of Harshavardhan. The dynasty marked the rise of Kashmir as a power in South Asia.[15] Avanti Varman ascended the throne of Kashmir on 855 A.D., establishing the Utpala dynasty and ending the rule of Karkota dynasty.[16]

According to tradition, Adi Shankara visited the pre-existing Sarvajñapīṭha (Sharada Peeth) in Kashmir in the late 8th century or early 9th century CE. The Madhaviya Shankaravijayam states this temple had four doors for scholars from the four cardinal directions. The southern door of Sarvajna Pitha was opened by Adi Shankara.[17] According to tradition, Adi Shankara opened the southern door by defeating in debate all the scholars there in all the various scholastic disciplines such as Mimamsa, Vedanta and other branches of Hindu philosophy; he ascended the throne of Transcendent wisdom of that temple.[18]

Abhinavagupta (c. 950–1020 CE[19][20]) was one of India's greatest philosophers, mystics and aestheticians. He was also considered an important musician, poet, dramatist, exegete, theologian, and logician[21][22] – a polymathic personality who exercised strong influences on Indian culture.[23][24] He was born in the Kashmir Valley[25] in a family of scholars and mystics and studied all the schools of philosophy and art of his time under the guidance of as many as fifteen (or more) teachers and gurus.[26] In his long life he completed over 35 works, the largest and most famous of which is Tantrāloka, an encyclopaedic treatise on all the philosophical and practical aspects of Trika and Kaula (known today as Kashmir Shaivism). Another one of his very important contributions was in the field of philosophy of aesthetics with his famous Abhinavabhāratī commentary of Nāṭyaśāstra of Bharata Muni.[27]

In the 10th century Moksopaya or Moksopaya Shastra, a philosophical text on salvation for non-ascetics (moksa-upaya: 'means to release'), was written on the Pradyumna hill in Śrīnagar.[28][29] It has the form of a public sermon and claims human authorship and contains about 30,000 shloka's (making it longer than the Ramayana). The main part of the text forms a dialogue between Vasistha and Rama, interchanged with numerous short stories and anecdotes to illustrate the content.[30][31] This text was later (11th to the 14th century CE)[32] expanded and vedanticised, which resulted in the Yoga Vasistha.[33]

Queen Kota Rani was medieval Hindu ruler of Kashmir, ruling until 1339. She was a notable ruler who is often credited for saving Srinagar city from frequent floods by getting a canal constructed, named after her "Kutte Kol". This canal receives water from Jhelum River at the entry point of city and again merges with Jhelum river beyond the city limits.[34]

Muslim rule[edit]

Shah Mir Dynasty[edit]

Gateway of enclosure, (once a Hindu temple) of Zein-ul-ab-ud-din's Tomb, in Srinagar. Probable date A.D. 400 to 500, 1868. John Burke. Oriental and India Office Collection. British Library.

Shams-ud-Din Shah Mir (reigned 1339–42) was the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir[35] and founder of the Shah Mir Dynasty.[35][36] Kashmiri historian Jonaraja, in his Dvitīyā Rājataraṅginī mentioned Shah Mir was from Swat, and his ancestors were Kshatriya, who converted to Islam.

Shāh Mīr arrived in Kashmir in 1313, along with his family, during the reign of Sūhadeva (1301–20), whose service he entered. In subsequent years, through his tact and ability, Shāh Mīr rose to prominence and became one of the important personalities of the time. Later, after the death in 1338 of Udayanadeva, the brother of Sūhadeva, he was able to assume the kingship himself and thus laid the foundation of permanent Muslim rule in Kashmir. Dissensions among the ruling classes and foreign invasions were the two main factors which contributed towards the establishment of Muslim rule in Kashmir.[37]

Rinchan, from Ladakh, and Lankar Chak, from Dard territory near Gilgit, came to Kashmir and played a notable role in the subsequent political history of the Valley. All the three men were granted Jagirs (feudatory estates) by the King. Rinchan became the ruler of Kashmir for three years. Shah Mir was the first ruler of Shah Miri dynasty, which had established in 1339 CE. Muslim ulama, such as Sayyid Ali Hamadani, arrived from Central Asia to proselytize in Kashmir and their efforts converted thousands of Kashmiris to Islam[38] and Hamadani's son also convinced Sikander Butshikan to enforce Islamic law. By the late 1400s most Kashmiris had accepted Islam.[39]

Mughal rule[edit]

The Mughal padshah (emperor) Akbar the Great conquered Kashmir, taking advantage of Kashmir's internal Sunni-Shia divisions,[40] and thus ended indigenous Kashmiri Muslim rule.[6] Akbar added it in 1586 to Kabul Subah, but Shah Jahan carved it out as a separate subah (imperial top-level province) with seat at Srinagar. Later Mughal rulers oppressed Kashmir's Hindus and temple demolitions, forced conversions, rape and discrimination against Hindus occurred.[41]

Afghan rule[edit]

The Afghan Durrani dynasty's Sadozai Kingdom controlled Kashmir from 1751, when weakling 15th Mughal padshah (emperor) Ahmad Shah Bahadur's viceroy Muin-ul-Mulk was defeated and reinstated by the Durrani founder Ahmad Shah Durrani (who conquered, roughly, modern day Afghanistan and Pakistan from the Mughals and local rulers), until the 1820 Sikh triumph. The Afghan rulers brutally repressed Kashmiris of all faiths (according to Kashmiri historians).[42]

Sikh rule[edit]

In 1819, the Kashmir valley passed from the control of the Durrani Empire of Afghanistan to the conquering armies of the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh of the Punjab,[43] thus ending four centuries of Muslim rule under the Mughals and the Afghan regime. As the Kashmiris had suffered under the Afghans, they initially welcomed the new Sikh rulers.[44] However, the Sikh governors turned out to be hard taskmasters, and Sikh rule was generally considered oppressive,[45] protected perhaps by the remoteness of Kashmir from the capital of the Sikh Empire in Lahore.[46] The Sikhs enacted a number of anti-Muslim laws,[46] which included handing out death sentences for cow slaughter,[44] closing down the Jamia Masjid in Srinagar,[46] and banning the azaan, the public Muslim call to prayer.[46] Kashmir had also now begun to attract European visitors, several of whom wrote of the abject poverty of the vast Muslim peasantry and of the exorbitant taxes under the Sikhs.[44][47] High taxes, according to some contemporary accounts, had depopulated large tracts of the countryside, allowing only one-sixteenth of the cultivable land to be cultivated.[44] Many Kashmiri peasants migrated to the plains of the Punjab.[48] However, after a famine in 1832, the Sikhs reduced the land tax to half the produce of the land and also began to offer interest-free loans to farmers;[46] Kashmir became the second highest revenue earner for the Sikh Empire.[46] During this time Kashmiri shawls became known worldwide, attracting many buyers, especially in the West.[46]

The state of Jammu, which had been on the ascendant after the decline of the Mughal Empire, came under the sway of the Sikhs in 1770. Further in 1808, it was fully conquered by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Gulab Singh, then a youngster in the House of Jammu, enrolled in the Sikh troops and, by distinguishing himself in campaigns, gradually rose in power and influence. In 1822, he was anointed as the Raja of Jammu.[49] Along with his able general Zorawar Singh, he conquered and subdued Rajouri (1821), Kishtwar (1821), Suru valley and Kargil (1835), Ladakh (1834–1840), and Baltistan (1840), thereby surrounding the Kashmir Valley. He became a wealthy and influential noble in the Sikh court.[50]

Princely state[edit]

1909 Map of the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu. The names of regions, important cities, rivers, and mountains are underlined in red.

In 1845, the First Anglo-Sikh War broke out. According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India,

"Gulab Singh contrived to hold himself aloof till the battle of Sobraon (1846), when he appeared as a useful mediator and the trusted advisor of Sir Henry Lawrence. Two treaties were concluded. By the first the State of Lahore (i.e. West Punjab) handed over to the British, as equivalent for one crore indemnity, the hill countries between the rivers Beas and Indus; by the second the British made over to Gulab Singh for 75 lakhs all the hilly or mountainous country situated to the east of the Indus and the west of the Ravi i.e. the Vale of Kashmir)."[43]

Drafted by a treaty and a bill of sale, and constituted between 1820 and 1858, the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu (as it was first called) combined disparate regions, religions, and ethnicities:[51] to the east, Ladakh was ethnically and culturally Tibetan and its inhabitants practised Buddhism; to the south, Jammu had a mixed population of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs; in the heavily populated central Kashmir valley, the population was overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim, however, there was also a small but influential Hindu minority, the Kashmiri brahmins or pandits; to the northeast, sparsely populated Baltistan had a population ethnically related to Ladakh, but which practised Shi'a Islam; to the north, also sparsely populated, Gilgit Agency, was an area of diverse, mostly Shi'a groups; and, to the west, Punch was Muslim, but of different ethnicity than the Kashmir valley.[51] After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, in which Kashmir sided with the British, and the subsequent assumption of direct rule by Great Britain, the princely state of Kashmir came under the suzerainty of the British Crown.

In the British census of India of 1941, Kashmir registered a Muslim majority population of 77%, a Hindu population of 20% and a sparse population of Buddhists and Sikhs comprising the remaining 3%.[52] That same year, Prem Nath Bazaz, a Kashmiri Pandit journalist wrote: “The poverty of the Muslim masses is appalling. ... Most are landless laborers, working as serfs for absentee [Hindu] landlords ... Almost the whole brunt of official corruption is borne by the Muslim masses.”[53] Under the Hindu rule, Muslims faced hefty taxation, discrimination in the legal system and were forced into labor without any wages.[54] Conditions in the princely state caused a significant migration of people from the Kashmir Valley to Punjab of British India.[55] For almost a century until the census, a small Hindu elite had ruled over a vast and impoverished Muslim peasantry.[52][56] Driven into docility by chronic indebtedness to landords and moneylenders, having no education besides, nor awareness of rights,[52] the Muslim peasants had no political representation until the 1930s.[56]

1947 and 1948[edit]

File:Brit IndianEmpireReligions3.jpg
The prevailing religions by district in the 1901 Census of the Indian Empire.

Ranbir Singh's grandson Hari Singh, who had ascended the throne of Kashmir in 1925, was the reigning monarch in 1947 at the conclusion of British rule of the subcontinent and the subsequent partition of the British Indian Empire into the newly independent Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.

In the run up to 1947 there were two major parties in the princely state: the National Conference and the Muslim Conference. The National Conference was led by the charismatic Kashmiri leader Sheikh Abdullah who titled towards favouring the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India whilst the Muslim Conference tilted towards favouring the accession of the princely state to Pakistan.[57] The National Conference enjoyed popular support in the Kashmir Valley whilst the Muslim Conference was more popular in the Jammu region.[58] The Hindus and Sikhs of the state were firmly in favour of joining India, as were the Buddhists.[59] However, the sentiments of the state's Muslim population were divided. Scholar Christopher Snedden states that the Muslims of Western Jammu, and also the Muslims of the Frontier Districts Province, strongly wanted Jammu and Kashmir to join Pakistan.[60] The ethnic Kashmiri Muslims of the Kashmir Valley, on the other hand, were ambivalent about Pakistan[61] (possibly due to their secular nature)[62] although Snedden claims that the best-informed English language newspaper on the state's affairs, the CMG, reported on 21 October 1947 that there had been a massive upsurge in favour of Pakistan in the southern section of the Kashmir Valley-which was the stronghold of the socialist Kisan Mazdoor Conference party led by Kashmiri Pandit Prem Nath Bazaz.[63] Conversely, The Times reported that Sheikh Abdullah's influence in Srinagar was 'paramount'.[64] The fact that Kashmiris were not particularly enamoured with the idea of Pakistan reflected the failure of the idea of Pan-Islamic identity in satisfying the political urges of Kashmiris.[65] At the same time there was also a lack of interest in merging with Indian nationalism.[66]

According to Burton Stein's History of India,

"Kashmir was neither as large nor as old an independent state as Hyderabad; it had been created rather off-handedly by the British after the first defeat of the Sikhs in 1846, as a reward to a former official who had sided with the British. The Himalayan kingdom was connected to India through a district of the Punjab, but its population was 77 per cent Muslim and it shared a boundary with Pakistan. Hence, it was anticipated that the maharaja would accede to Pakistan when the British paramountcy ended on 14–15 August. When he hesitated to do this, Pakistan launched a guerrilla onslaught meant to frighten its ruler into submission. Instead the Maharaja appealed to Mountbatten[67] for assistance, and the governor-general agreed on the condition that the ruler accede to India. Indian soldiers entered Kashmir and drove the Pakistani-sponsored irregulars from all but a small section of the state. The United Nations was then invited to mediate the quarrel. The UN mission insisted that the opinion of Kashmiris must be ascertained, while India insisted that no referendum could occur until all of the state had been cleared of irregulars."[68]

In the last days of 1948, a ceasefire was agreed under UN auspices. However, since the plebiscite demanded by the UN was never conducted, relations between India and Pakistan soured,[68] and eventually led to two more wars over Kashmir in 1965 and 1999. India has control of about half the area of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, while Pakistan controls a third of the region, the Northern Areas and Kashmir. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, "Although there was a clear Muslim majority in Kashmir before the 1947 partition and its economic, cultural, and geographic contiguity with the Muslim-majority area of the Punjab (in Pakistan) could be convincingly demonstrated, the political developments during and after the partition resulted in a division of the region. Pakistan was left with territory that, although basically Muslim in character, was thinly populated, relatively inaccessible, and economically underdeveloped. The largest Muslim group, situated in the Valley of Kashmir and estimated to number more than half the population of the entire region, lay in Indian-administered territory, with its former outlets via the Jhelum valley route blocked."[69]

Current status and political divisions[edit]

The eastern region of the former princely state of Kashmir is also involved in a boundary dispute that began in the late 19th century and continues into the 21st. Although some boundary agreements were signed between Great Britain, Afghanistan and Russia over the northern borders of Kashmir, China never accepted these agreements, and China's official position has not changed following the communist revolution of 1949 that established the People's Republic of China. By the mid-1950s the Chinese army had entered the north-east portion of Ladakh.[69]

"By 1956–57 they had completed a military road through the Aksai Chin area to provide better communication between Xinjiang and western Tibet. India's belated discovery of this road led to border clashes between the two countries that culminated in the Sino-Indian war of October 1962."[69]

The region is divided amongst three countries in a territorial dispute: Pakistan controls the northwest portion (Northern Areas and Kashmir), India controls the central and southern portion (Jammu and Kashmir) and Ladakh, and the People's Republic of China controls the northeastern portion (Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract). India controls the majority of the Siachen Glacier area, including the Saltoro Ridge passes, whilst Pakistan controls the lower territory just southwest of the Saltoro Ridge. India controls 101,338 km2 (39,127 sq mi) of the disputed territory, Pakistan controls 85,846 km2 (33,145 sq mi), and the People's Republic of China controls the remaining 37,555 km2 (14,500 sq mi).

Jammu and Azad Kashmir lie outside Pir Panjal range, and are under Indian and Pakistani control respectively. These are populous regions. The main cities are Mirpur, Dadayal, Kotli, Bhimber, Jammu, Muzaffarabad and Rawalakot. Gilgit–Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is a group of territories in the extreme north, bordered by the Karakoram, the western Himalayas, the Pamir, and the Hindu Kush ranges. With its administrative centre in the town of Gilgit, the Northern Areas cover an area of 72,971 square kilometres (28,174 sq mi) and have an estimated population approaching 1 million (10 lakhs). The other main city is Skardu.

Ladakh is a region in the east, between the Kunlun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south.[70] Main cities are Leh and Kargil. It is under Indian administration and is part of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is one of the most sparsely populated regions in the area and is mainly inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.[70] Aksai Chin is a vast high-altitude desert of salt that reaches altitudes up to 5,000 metres (16,000 ft). Geographically part of the Tibetan Plateau, Aksai Chin is referred to as the Soda Plain. The region is almost uninhabited, and has no permanent settlements.

Though these regions are in practice administered by their respective claimants, neither India nor Pakistan has formally recognised the accession of the areas claimed by the other. India claims those areas, including the area "ceded" to China by Pakistan in the Trans-Karakoram Tract in 1963, are a part of its territory, while Pakistan claims the entire region excluding Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract. The two countries have fought several declared wars over the territory. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 established the rough boundaries of today, with Pakistan holding roughly one-third of Kashmir, and India one-half, with a dividing line of control established by the United Nations. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 resulted in a stalemate and a UN-negotiated ceasefire.


In the 1901 Census of the British Indian Empire, the population of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu was 2,905,578. Of these, 2,154,695 (74.16%) were Muslims, 689,073 (23.72%) Hindus, 25,828 (0.89%) Sikhs, and 35,047 (1.21%) Buddhists (implying 935 (0.032%) others).

A Muslim shawl making family shown in Cashmere shawl manufactory, 1867, chromolith., William Simpson.
A group of Kashmiri Pandits, natives of Kashmir Valley belong to one of the prominent Shaiva sects of Hinduism, shown in 1895.

Among the Muslims of the Kashmir province within the princely state, four divisions were recorded: "Shaikhs, Saiyids, Mughals, and Pathans. The Shaikhs, who are by far the most numerous, are the descendants of Hindus, but have retained none of the caste rules of their forefathers. They have clan names known as krams ..."[71] These kram names included "Tantre", "Shaikh", "Bat", "Mantu", "Ganai", "Dar", "Damar", "Lon", etc. The Saiyids "could be divided into those who follow the profession of religion and those who have taken to agriculture and other pursuits. Their kram name is 'Mir.' While a Saiyid retains his saintly profession Mir is a prefix; if he has taken to agriculture, Mir is an affix to his name."[71] The Mughals who were not numerous had kram names like "Mir" (a corruption of "Mirza"), "Beg", "Bandi", "Bach" and "Ashaye". Finally, it was recorded that the Pathans "who are more numerous than the Mughals, ... are found chiefly in the south-west of the valley, where Pathan colonies have from time to time been founded. The most interesting of these colonies is that of Kuki-Khel Afridis at Dranghaihama, who retain all the old customs and speak Pashtu."[71] Among the main tribes of Muslims in the princely state are the Butts, Dar, Lone, Jat, Gujjar, Rajput, Sudhan and Khatri. A small number of Butts, Dar and Lone use the title Khawaja. The Khatri use the title Shaikh and the Gujjar use the title Chaudhary. All these tribes are indigenous to the princely state which converted to Islam from Hinduism during its arrival in the region.

The Hindus were found mainly in Jammu, where they constituted a little less than 60% of the population.[71] In the Kashmir Valley, the Hindus represented "524 in every 10,000 of the population (i.e. 5.24%), and in the frontier wazarats of Ladhakh and Gilgit only 94 out of every 10,000 persons (0.94%)."[71] In the same Census of 1901, in the Kashmir Valley, the total population was recorded to be 1,157,394, of which the Muslim population was 1,083,766, or 93.6% and the Hindu population 60,641.[71] Among the Hindus of Jammu province, who numbered 626,177 (or 90.87% of the Hindu population of the princely state), the most important castes recorded in the census were "Brahmans (186,000), the Rajputs (167,000), the Khattris (48,000) and the Thakkars (93,000)."[71]

In the 1911 Census of the British Indian Empire, the total population of Kashmir and Jammu had increased to 3,158,126. Of these, 2,398,320 (75.94%) were Muslims, 696,830 (22.06%) Hindus, 31,658 (1%) Sikhs, and 36,512 (1.16%) Buddhists. In the last census of British India in 1941, the total population of Kashmir and Jammu (which as a result of the second world war, was estimated from the 1931 census) was 3,945,000. Of these, the total Muslim population was 2,997,000 (75.97%), the Hindu population was 808,000 (20.48%), and the Sikh 55,000 (1.39%).[72]

The Kashmiri Pandits, the only Hindus of the Kashmir valley, who had stably constituted approximately 4 to 5% of the population of the valley during Dogra rule (1846–1947), and 20% of whom had left the Kashmir valley by 1950,[73] began to leave in much greater numbers in the 1990s. According to a number of authors, approximately 100,000 of the total Kashmiri Pandit population of 140,000 left the valley during that decade.[74] Other authors have suggested a higher figure for the exodus, ranging from the entire population of over 150[75] to 190 thousand (1.5 to 190,000) of a total Pandit population of 200 thousand (200,000)[76] to a number as high as 300 thousand[77] (300,000).

People in Jammu speak Hindi, Punjabi and Dogri, the Vale of Kashmir speaks Kashmiri and the sparsely inhabited Ladakh region speaks Tibetan and Balti.[78]

The total population of India's division of Jammu and Kashmir is 12,541,302[79] and Pakistan's division of Kashmir is 2,580,000 and Gilgit-Baltistan is 870,347.[80]

Administered by Area Population % Muslim % Hindu % Buddhist % Other
 India Kashmir Valley ~4 million (4 million) 95% 4%*
Jammu ~3 million (3 million) 30% 66% 4%
Ladakh ~0.25 million (250,000) 46% 50% 3%
23x15px Pakistan Azad Kashmir ~2.6 million (2.6 million) 100%
Gilgit–Baltistan ~1 million (1 million) 99%
23x15px China Aksai Chin
File:Kashmir Ladakh women in local costume.jpg
Brokpa women from Kargil, northern Ladakh, in local costumes


File:Srinagar pano.jpg
Srinagar, the largest city of Kashmir

Kashmir's economy is centred around agriculture. Traditionally the staple crop of the valley was rice, which formed the chief food of the people. In addition, Indian corn, wheat, barley and oats were also grown. Given its temperate climate, it is suited for crops like asparagus, artichoke, seakale, broad beans, scarletrunners, beetroot, cauliflower and cabbage. Fruit trees are common in the valley, and the cultivated orchards yield pears, apples, peaches, and cherries. The chief trees are deodar, firs and pines, chenar or plane, maple, birch and walnut, apple, cherry.

Historically, Kashmir became known worldwide when Cashmere wool was exported to other regions and nations (exports have ceased due to decreased abundance of the cashmere goat and increased competition from China). Kashmiris are well adept at knitting and making Pashmina shawls, silk carpets, rugs, kurtas, and pottery. Saffron, too, is grown in Kashmir. Efforts are on to export the naturally grown fruits and vegetables as organic foods mainly to the Middle East. Srinagar is known for its silver-work, papier mache, wood-carving, and the weaving of silk. The economy was badly damaged by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake which, as of 8 October 2005, resulted in over 70,000 deaths in the Pakistan-controlled part of Kashmir and around 1,500 deaths in Indian controlled Kashmir. The Indian-administered portion of Kashmir is believed to have potentially rich rocks containing hydrocarbon reserves.[81][82]


Transport is predominantly by air or road vehicles in the region.[83] Kashmir has a 135 km (84 mi) long modern railway line that started in October 2009, and was last extended in 2013 and connects Baramulla in the western part of Kashmir to Srinagar and Banihal. It is expected to link Kashmir to the rest of India after the construction of the railway line from Katra to Banihal is completed.[84]

Holidays in Kashmir[edit]

Kashmiri Pandits celebrate 19 January 1990 as Holocaust Day.[85][86]

See also[edit]

  • Kashmir's conversion to Islam on a large scale also dates from the beginning of the fifteenth century....However, it was during the reign of Sikandar Butshikan (1394-1417), that the wind of Muslim proselytization blew the strongest. He invited from Persia, Arabia and Mesopotamia learned men of his own faith; his bigotry prompted him to destroy all the most famous temples in Kashmir - Martand, Vishya, Isna, Chakrabhrit, Tripeshwar, etc. Sikandar offered the Kashmiris the choice between Islam and death. Some Kashmiri Brahmans committed suicide, many left the land, many others embraced Islam, and a few began to live under Taqiya, that is, they professed Islam only outwardly. It is said that the fierce intolerance of Sikandar had left in Kashmir no more than eleven families of Brahmans. ...By the time of Akbar’s annexation of Kashmir (C.E. 1586) the valley had turned mainly Mohammadan. When Father Xavier and Brother Benedict went to Kashmir with Akbar this is what they learnt: “In antiquity this land was inhabited by the Moors, possibly a reference to Timur (contemporary of Sikandar the Iconoclast), and since then the majority of the people accept Islam.” When Kashmir was under Muslim rule for 500 years (1319-1819) Hindus were constantly tortured and forcibly converted.
    • K. S. Lal (1993). Indian Muslims: Who are they. New Delhi: Voice of India.

Kashmir in 1947-48[edit]

  • The Pashtun tribesmen under Khurshid Anwar`s command halted after reaching Baramula, only an hour`s bus ride from Srinagar and refused to go any further. Here they embarked on a three-day binge, looting houses assaulting Muslims and Hindus alike, raping men and women and stealing money from Kashmir treasury. The local cinema was transformed into a rape centre. A group of Pashtuns invaded St Joseph's convent, where they raped and killed four nuns, including the mother superior.
    • The Clash of Fundamentalisms' by Tariq Ali
  • The numer of women who have been kidnapped and raped makes my heart bleed.The wild forces thus let loose on the State are marching on with the aim of capturing Srinagar, the summer Capital of my Government, as first step to over-running the whole State [of Kashmir].
    • The Maharaja Hari Singh wrote this in his letter to Mountbatten, while Kashmir was invaded by Mujahedins: Maharaja Hari Singh's Letter to Mountbatten. Letter Dated October 26, 1947 From Hari Singh, The Maharaja Of Jammu & Kashmir to Lord Mountbatten, Governor General of India. [1] [2]
  • "the raiders came to our land, massacred thousands of people -- mostly Hindus and Sikhs, but Muslims too -- abducted thousands of girls, Hindu, Sikhs and Muslims alike, looted our property and almost reached the gates of our summer capital, Srinagar".
    • Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah's speech in the UN Security Council Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah's speech in the UN Security Council Meeting No.241 held on 5 February 1948 [3]
  • "Everything was peaceful until the afternoon of 27 October, when the tribesmen suddenly appeared in their lorries. They took control of the town and an orgy started. Anyone who attempted to argue with them or showed any signs of resistance was shot immediately. This resulted in those residing in the Southern portion of the town fleeing to the Northern part which lay across the Jhelum River. Almost throughout the night there were signs of arson and bursts of firing. The next day, 28 October, groups of tribesmen entered the Northern part of the town and abducted women whom they dragged back to the Southern part. They warned the people to stay in their houses or face death if they stirred out".
    • Capt PR Dewan, from the book `Slender was the Thread` by L.P. Sen
  • In Hindutva writings (e.g. in Jeevan Kulkarni’s Writ Petition no. 587 of 1989), there is frequent reference to a telegram allegedly sent by the Pakistani raiders to their military headquarters during the invasion of Kashmir in 1948: “All women raped, all Sikhs killed.”
    • Koenraad Elst (2002). Who is a Hindu?: Hindu revivalist views of Animism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and other offshoots of Hinduism.


  1. 1.0 1.1 "Kashmir: region, Indian subcontinent". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 July 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Quote: "Kashmir, region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent. It is bounded by the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang to the northeast and the Tibet Autonomous Region to the east (both parts of China), by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south, by Pakistan to the west, and by Afghanistan to the northwest. The northern and western portions are administered by Pakistan and comprise three areas: Azad Kashmir, Gilgit, and Baltistan, ... The southern and southeastern portions constitute the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. The Indian- and Pakistani-administered portions are divided by a “line of control” agreed to in 1972, although neither country recognizes it as an international boundary. In addition, China became active in the eastern area of Kashmir in the 1950s and since 1962 has controlled the northeastern part of Ladakh (the easternmost portion of the region)."
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Kashmir territories profile". BBC. Retrieved 16 July 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Quote: "The Himalayan region of Kashmir has been a flashpoint between India and Pakistan for over six decades. Since India's partition and the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the nuclear-armed neighbours have fought three wars over the Muslim-majority territory, which both claim in full but control in part. Today it remains one of the most militarised zones in the world. China administers parts of the territory."
  3. "Kashmir profile — timeline". BBC. Retrieved 16 July 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Quote: "1950s – China gradually occupies eastern Kashmir (Aksai Chin). 1962 – China defeats India in a short war for control of Aksai Chin. 1963 – Pakistan cedes the Trans-Karakoram Tract of Kashmir to China."
  4. Basham, A. L. (2005) The wonder that was India, Picador. Pp. 572. ISBN 0-330-43909-X, p. 110.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. Oxford University Press, Oxford and London. pp. 93–95.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Puri, Balraj (June 2009), "5000 Years of Kashmir", Epilogue, 3 (6), pp. 43–45, retrieved 31 December 2016, It was emperor Akbar who brought an end to indigenous Kashmiri Muslim rule that had lasted 250 years. The watershed in Kashmiri history is not the beginning of the Muslim rule as is regarded in the rest of the subcontinent but the changeover from Kashmiri rule to a non-Kashmiri rule.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages". Dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2015-05-29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Akbar, M. J. (1991), Kashmir, behind the vale, Viking, p. 9<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Raina, Mohini Qasba (October 2013), Kashur The Kashmiri Speaking People, Trafford Publishing, pp. 3–, ISBN 978-1-4907-0165-3<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. 10.0 10.1 Snedden, Christopher (2015), Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris, Oxford University Press, pp. 22–, ISBN 978-1-84904-342-7<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. P. iv 'Kashmir Today' by Government, 1998
  12. A.K. Warder, Indian Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass 2000, page 256.
  13. A.K. Warder, Indian Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass 2000, pages 263–264.
  14. Life in India, Issue 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Kalhana (1147–1149); Rajatarangini.
  16. Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. p. 295. ISBN 978-8122-411-98-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Shyama Kumar Chattopadhyaya (2000) The Philosophy of Sankar's Advaita Vedanta, Sarup & Sons, New Delhi ISBN 81-7625-222-0, ISBN 978-81-7625-222-5
  18. Tapasyananda, Swami (2002), Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, pp. 186–195<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Triadic Heart of Shiva, Paul E. Muller-Ortega, page 12
  20. Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 27
  21. Re-accessing Abhinavagupta, Navjivan Rastogi, page 4
  22. Key to the Vedas, Nathalia Mikhailova, page 169
  23. The Pratyabhijñā Philosophy, Ganesh Vasudeo Tagare, page 12
  24. Companion to Tantra, S.C. Banerji, page 89
  25. Doctrine of Divine Recognition, K. C. Pandey, page V
  26. Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 35
  27. Luce dei Tantra, Tantrāloka, Abhinavagupta, Raniero Gnoli, page LXXVII
  28. Slaje, Walter. (2005). "Locating the Mokṣopāya", in: Hanneder, Jürgen (Ed.). The Mokṣopāya, Yogavāsiṣṭha and Related Texts Aachen: Shaker Verlag. (Indologica Halensis. Geisteskultur Indiens. 7). p. 35.
  29. Gallery – The journey to the Pradyumnaśikhara Archived 23 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine.
  30. Leslie 2003, pp. 104–107
  31. Lekh Raj Manjdadria. (2002?) The State of Research to date on the Yogavastha (Moksopaya).
  32. Hanneder, Jürgen; Slaje, Walter. Moksopaya Project: Introduction. Archived 28 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine.
  33. Chapple, Christopher; Venkatesananda (1984), "Introduction", The Concise Yoga Vāsiṣṭha, Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. x–xi, ISBN 0-87395-955-8, OCLC 11044869<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. Culture and political history of Kashmir, Prithivi Nath Kaul Bamzai, M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1994.
  35. 35.0 35.1 Concise Encyclopeida Of World History By Carlos Ramirez-Faria, page 412
  36. The Pearson Indian History Manual for the UPSC Civil Services Page 104 "However, the situation changed with the ending of the Hindu rule and founding of the Shahmiri dynasty by Shahmir or Dhams-ud-din (1339–1342). The devastating attack on Kashmir in 1320 by the Mongol leader, Dalucha, was a prelude to it. It is said ... The Sultan was himself a learned man, and composed poetry. He was ..."
  37. Baloch, N. A.; Rafiqi, A. Q. (1998), "The Regions of Sind, Baluchistan, Multan and Kashmir" (PDF), in M. S. Asimov; C. E. Bosworth (eds.), History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV, Part 1 — The age of achievement: A.D. 750 to the end of the fifteenth century — The historical, social and economic setting, UNESCO, pp. 297–322, ISBN 978-92-3-103467-1<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. Amin, Tahir; Schofield, Victoria. Kashmir. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. A large number of Muslim ʿulamāʿ came from Central Asia to Kashmir to preach; Sayyid Bilāl Shāh, Sayyid Jalāluddīn of Bukhara, Sayyid Tajuddīn, his brother Sayyid Ḥusayn Sīmānī, Sayyid ʿAlī Ḥamadānī, his son Mir Muḥammad Hamadānī, and Shaykh Nūruddīn are some of the well-known ʿulamāʿ who played a significant role in spreading Islam.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. Amin, Tahir; Schofield, Victoria. Kashmir. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. The contribution of Sayyid ʿAlī Hamadānī, popularly known as Shah-yi Hamadān, is legendary. Born at Hamadān (Iran) in 1314 and belonging to the Kubrawīyah order of Ṣūfīs, a branch of the Suhrawardīyah, he paid three visits to Kashmir in 1372, 1379, and 1383; together with several hundred followers, he converted thousands of Kashmiris to Islam. His son Sayyid Muḥammad Hamadānī continued his work, vigorously propagating Islam as well as influencing the Muslim ruler Sikander (1389–1413) to enforce Islamic law and to establish the office of the Shaykh al-Islām (chief religious authority). By the end of the fifteenth century, the majority of the people had embraced Islam.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. p. 29. ISBN 9781849043427. Similarly, Sunni and Shia Kashmiris had troubles at times, with their differences offering the third Mughal Emperor, Akbar (ruled 1556–1605), a pretext to invade Kashmir, and capture it, in 1586.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. Toshkhani, S. S. (2004), "Early Kashmiri Society and the Challenge of Islam", in M. K. Kaw (ed.), Kashmir and Its People: Studies in the Evolution of Kashmiri Society, APH Publishing, p. 115, ISBN 978-81-7648-537-1, Oppressed, hunted, tormented and crushed by the burden of heavy exactions, the Hindus, particularly the Brahmins, somehow got a brief respite during the rule of Akhar, who treated them with sympathy. But under the later Mughals it was the same story of forcible conversions, demolitions of temples, discrimination and rape<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. Zutshi, Chitralekha (2004). Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 35. ISBN 9781850657002. Most historians of Kashmir agree on the rapacity of the Afghan governors, a period unrelieved by even brief respite devoted to good work and welfare for the people of Kashmir. According to these histories, the Afghans were brutally repressive with all Kashmiris, regardless of class or religion<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. 43.0 43.1 Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. "Kashmir: History". pp. 94–95.
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 Schofield, Kashmir in Conflict 2003, pp. 5–6
  45. Madan, Kashmir, Kashmiris, Kashimiriyat 2008, p. 15
  46. 46.0 46.1 46.2 46.3 46.4 46.5 46.6 Zutshi, Languages of Belonging 2004, pp. 39–41
  47. Amin, Tahir; Schofield, Victoria. Kashmir. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. During both Sikh and Dogra rule, heavy taxation, forced work without wages (begār), discriminatory laws, and rural indebtedness were widespread among the largely illiterate Muslim population.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. Zutshi, Chitralekha (2004). Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 40. ISBN 9781850656944. Kashmiri histories emphasize the wretchedness of life for the common Kashmiri during Sikh rule. According to these, the peasantry became mired in poverty and migrations of Kashmiri peasants to the plains of the Punjab reached high proportions. Severeal European travelers' accounts from the period testify to and provide evidence for such assertions.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. Panikkar 1930, p. 10–11, 14–34.
  50. Schofield, Kashmir in Conflict 2003, pp. 6–7.
  51. 51.0 51.1 Bowers, Paul. 2004. "Kashmir." Research Paper 4/28, International Affairs and Defence, House of Commons Library, United Kingdom.
  52. 52.0 52.1 52.2 Bose 2005, pp. 15–17
  53. Quoted in Bose 2005, pp. 15–17
  54. Kashmir. OUP.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. Sumantra Bose (16 September 2013). Transforming India. Harvard University Press. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-674-72820-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. 56.0 56.1 Talbot & Singh 2009, p. 54
  57. Snedden, Christopher (2013). Kashmir-The Untold Story. HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN 9789350298985. In 1947, J&K's political scene was dominated by two parties: the All J&K National Conference (commonly called the National Conference) and the All J&K Muslim Conference (commonly called the Muslim Conference). Each conference had a different aspiration for J&K's status: the National Conference opposed J&K joining Pakistan; the Muslim Conference favoured this option.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. Snedden, Christopher (2013). Kashmir-The Untold Story. HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN 9789350298985. The National Conference was strongest in the Kashmir Valley... conversely, outside the Kashmir Valley its support was much less, with perhaps five to 15 per cent of the population supporting it. The Muslim Conference had a lot of support in Jammu Province and much less in the Kashmir Valley.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. Snedden, Christopher (2012). The Untold Story of the People of Azad Kashmir. Hurst. p. 35. ISBN 9781849041508. Retrieved 30 December 2016. Those Hindus and Sikhs who comprised a majority in the eastern parts of Jammu province were strongly pro-Indian. Their dislike of Pakistan and pro-Pakistani J&K Muslims was further heightened by the arrival of angry and agitated Hindu and Sikh refugees from western (Pakistani) Punjab after 15 August 1947. Accession to Pakistan therefore, would almost certainly have seen these people either fight to retain their land or take flight to India. In the event of accession to Pakistan, Hindu Pandits and Sikhs in the Kashmir Valley, most of whom probably favoured J&K joining India, might also have fled to pro-Indian parts of J&K, or to India. Although their position is less clear, Ladakhi Buddhists probably favoured India also.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. Snedden, Christopher (2013). Kashmir-The Untold Story. HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN 9789350298985. Similarly, Muslims in Western Jammu Province, particularly in Poonch, many of whom had martial capabilities, and Muslims in the Frontier Districts Province strongly wanted J&K to join Pakistan.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. Snedden, Christopher (2013). Kashmir-The Untold Story. HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN 9789350298985. An important trait evident among Kashmiris partially explains why Kashmiri Muslims were ambivalent about Pakistan in 1947.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. Snedden, Christopher (2013). Kashmir-The Untold Story. HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN 9789350298985. One significant result of the concept of Kashmiriness was that Kashmiris may have been naturally attracted to secular thinking.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. Snedden, Christopher (2012). The Untold Story of the People of Azad Kashmir. Hurst. p. 24. ISBN 9781849041508. Retrieved 30 December 2016. The CMG, the best-informed English-language newspaper on J&K affairs, on 21 October 1947 reported that the southern Kashmir Valley, which apparently was the 'stronghold' of the Kisan Mazdoor Conference, 'last week witnessed a massive upsurge in favour of Pakistan'. However, the CMG's report predated the tribal invasion of Kashmir Province by one day, after which support for pro-Pakistan parties may have lessened, at least in the short term, even though southern Kashmir was not directly affected by this invasion.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. Snedden, Christopher (2012). The Untold Story of the People of Azad Kashmir. Hurst. p. 24. ISBN 9781849041508. Retrieved 30 December 2016. According to The Times' Special Correspondent in late October 1947, it was 'a moot point how far Abdullah's influence extends among the Kashmiri Muslims...but in Srinagar his influence is paramount'.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. Chowdhary, Rekha (2015). Jammu and Kashmir: Politics of Identity and Separatism. Routledge. ISBN 9781317414049. That is why, Kashmiris were not particularly enamoured with the idea of Pakistan. The developments of 1930s (when Muslim Conference was converted into the National Conference) and 1940s (when Kashmiri leadership took a deliberated decision to demand self-government) clearly reflected the failure of pan-Islamic identity satisfying the political urges of Kashmiris.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. Chowdhary, Rekha (2015). Jammu and Kashmir: Politics of Identity and Separatism. Routledge. p. 20. ISBN 9781317414056. However, even while rejecting Pakistan, Sheikh did not agree to accept union with India in an unconditional manner. He was very firm about protecting the rights and identity of Kashmiris. As Puri argues, it was the same reason that compelled the Kashmiri leaders to distance themselves from the Muslim politics of pre-partition India, which reflected a lack of urge to merge with Indian nationalism.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. Viscount Louis Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of British India, stayed on in independent India from 1947 to 1948, serving as the first Governor-General of the Union of India.
  68. 68.0 68.1 Stein, Burton. 2010. A History of India. Oxford University Press. 432 pages. ISBN 978-1-4051-9509-6. Page 358.
  69. 69.0 69.1 69.2 Kashmir. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 27 March 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Archived 13 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  70. 70.0 70.1 Jina, Prem Singh (1996), Ladakh: The Land and the People, Indus Publishing, ISBN 81-7387-057-8<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  71. 71.0 71.1 71.2 71.3 71.4 71.5 71.6 Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. Oxford University Press, Oxford and London. pp. 99–102.
  72. Brush, J. E. 1949. "The Distribution of Religious Communities in India" Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 39(2):81–98.
  73. Zutshi 2003, p. 318 Quote: "Since a majority of the landlords were Hindu, the (land) reforms (of 1950) led to a mass exodus of Hindus from the state. ... The unsettled nature of Kashmir's accession to India, coupled with the threat of economic and social decline in the face of the land reforms, led to increasing insecurity among the Hindus in Jammu, and among Kashmiri Pandits, 20 per cent of whom had emigrated from the Valley by 1950."
  74. Bose 1997, p. 71, Rai 2004, p. 286, Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, p. 274 Quote: "The Hindu Pandits, a small but influential elite community who had secured a favourable position, first under the maharajas, and then under the successive Congress regimes, and proponents of a distinctive Kashmiri culture that linked them to India, felt under siege as the uprising gathered force. Of a population of some 140,000, perhaps 100,000 Pandits fled the state after 1990; their cause was quickly taken up by the Hindu right."
  75. Malik 2005, p. 318
  76. Madan 2008, p. 25
  77. CIA Factbook: India–Transnational Issues
  78. "Kashmir | region, Indian subcontinent". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-04-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  79. "India, Jammu and Kashmir population statistics". GeoHive. Retrieved 2015-05-29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. "Pakistan population statistics". GeoHive. Retrieved 2015-05-29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  81. Iftikhar Gilani. "Italian company to pursue oil exploration in Kashmir". Daily Times. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. Ishfaq-ul-Hassan. "India, Pakistan to explore oil jointly". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 20 November 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. "Local Transport in Kashmir – Means of Transportation Kashmir – Mode of Transportation Kashmir India". Bharatonline.com. Retrieved 3 August 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. "How to Reach Kashmir by Train, Air, Bus?". Baapar.com. Retrieved 22 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. http://www.hindu.com/2011/01/22/stories/2011012251000200.htm
  86. http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/when-the-water-in-the-spring-turned-black/article4320297.ece


  • Kashmir's conversion to Islam on a large scale also dates from the beginning of the fifteenth century....However, it was during the reign of Sikandar Butshikan (1394-1417), that the wind of Muslim proselytization blew the strongest. He invited from Persia, Arabia and Mesopotamia learned men of his own faith; his bigotry prompted him to destroy all the most famous temples in Kashmir - Martand, Vishya, Isna, Chakrabhrit, Tripeshwar, etc. Sikandar offered the Kashmiris the choice between Islam and death. Some Kashmiri Brahmans committed suicide, many left the land, many others embraced Islam, and a few began to live under Taqiya, that is, they professed Islam only outwardly. It is said that the fierce intolerance of Sikandar had left in Kashmir no more than eleven families of Brahmans. ...By the time of Akbar’s annexation of Kashmir (C.E. 1586) the valley had turned mainly Mohammadan. When Father Xavier and Brother Benedict went to Kashmir with Akbar this is what they learnt: “In antiquity this land was inhabited by the Moors, possibly a reference to Timur (contemporary of Sikandar the Iconoclast), and since then the majority of the people accept Islam.” When Kashmir was under Muslim rule for 500 years (1319-1819) Hindus were constantly tortured and forcibly converted.
    • K. S. Lal (1993). Indian Muslims: Who are they. New Delhi: Voice of India.

McGirk also under-reports the number of Hindu refugees as 90,000 instead of over 200,000; but at least, he acknowledges their existence, till today a rare event in the Anglo-Saxon media. (...) one could have expected a sympathy wave in favour of the Kashmiri Hindus, who were collectively hounded out of the Kashmir Valley in 1989-90. Nothing of the sort ever materialized, if only because most foreign media simply refrained from reporting this event.[1] (Elst 2001, Decolonizing the Hindu Mind, p. 57) Hindu NRIs have shown me bunches of copies of their mostly unpublished “letters to the editor” of a variety of media in which tehy allege gross misreporting on the Kashmir problem. (Elst 2001, Decolonizing the Hindu Mind, p. 58) Till the time of his writing, most references to the Kashmir conflict in the international media fail to mention the Hindu refugee problem. (Elst 2001, Decolonizing the Hindu Mind, p. 58) (...) As L.K. Advani commented: “Bullets for the kar-sevaks, biryani for the Kashmiri militants”. (Elst 2001, Decolonizing the Hindu Mind, p. 58)

The Hindu population fell from once 100 % to 15 % in 1941 to 0.1 % in 1991. Over 400'000 Kashmiri Pandits had to flee Kashmir since 1989. A report by the Panun Kashmir Movement (PKM) estimates that between 1986 and 1992 127 temples and 16'000 houses of Hindus were damaged. The Mata Khir Bhawani temple at Tulamula, Sun temple at Mattan, Luok Bhawan temple and the Ganpatyar temple were destroyed with the help of rockets and grenades. J&K MILITANTS HAVE DAMAGED 127 TEMPLES, THE TIMES OF INDIA, NEW DELHI, TUESDAY FEBRUARY 20, 1996 http://www.panunkashmir.org/toi-temple-damage.html

During the two days following the fall of the Babri Masjid, 32 temples were destroyed in Kashmir, according to report by the NHRC. J&K MILITANTS HAVE DAMAGED 127 TEMPLESTimes of India, February 20, 1996. Report on "Human rights violations in Jammu and Kashmir", submitted to the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC). http://www.panunkashmir.org/toi-temple-damage.html

Sultãn Sikandar Butshikan of Kashmir (AD 1389-1413) brought the religion of peace to the valley of Kashmir:

  • [he] strived to destroy the idols and temples of the infidels. He got demolished the famous temple of Mahãdeva at Bahrãre. The temple was dug out from its foundations and the hole (that remained) reached the water level. Another temple at Jagdar was also demolished… Rãjã Alamãdat had got a big temple constructed at Sinpur. (...) the temple was destroyed [by Sikandar]. (Khwãjah Nizãmu’d-Dîn Ahmad bin Muhammad Muqîm al-Harbî: Tabqãt-i-Akbarî translated by B. De, Calcutta, 1973)

“In these days he promoted a bramin, by name Seeva Dew Bhut, to the office of prime minister, who embracing the Mahomedan faith, became such a persecutor of Hindoos that he induced Sikundur to issue orders proscribing the residence of any other than Mahomedans in Kashmeer; and he required that no man should wear the mark on his forehead, or any woman be permitted to burn with her husband’s corpse. Lastly, he insisted on all golden and silver images being broken and melted down, and the metal coined into money. Many of the bramins, rather than abandon their religion or their country, poisoned themselves; some emigrated from their native homes, while a few escaped the evil of banishment by becoming Mahomedans. After the emigration of the bramins, Sikundur ordered all the temples in Kashmeer to be thrown down; among which was one dedicated to Maha Dew, in the district of Punjhuzara, which they were unable to destroy, in consequence of its foundation being below the surface of the neighbouring water. But the temple dedicated to Jug Dew was levelled with the ground; (...) but Sikundur (...) did not desist till the building was entirely razed to the ground, and its foundations dug up. “In another place in Kashmeer was a temple built by Raja Bulnat, the destruction of which was attended with a remarkable incident. (....) Having broken all the images in Kashmeer, he acquired the title of the Iconoclast, ‘Destroyer of Idols’ (Muhammad Qãsim Hindû Shãh Firishta : Tãrîkh-i-Firishta, translated by John Briggs under the title History of the Rise of the Mahomedan Power in India, first published in 1829, New Delhi Reprint 1981)

Sikandar demolished the temples of Martand, Vijayesan, Chakrabrat, Tripuresvar, Suresvari, Varaha and others. (Hasan, Tarikh-i-Kashmir; Fauq, Tarikh-i-Kashmir) sr goel hindutemples2 Six mounds (1 mound is 37 kilos) of sacred threads worn by Hindus were burned by him after assacring them. (Hasan, Tarikh-i-Kashmir) Hindus who put a tilak-mark on their forehead were killed by him. (Hasan, Tarikh-i-Kashmir) A Muslim historian Hassan also writes, " All the Hindu books of learning were collected and thrown into Dal Lake and were buried beneath stones and earth." "Hindus were forcibly converted to Islam and were massacred in case they refused to be converted'," (...)"And Sikandarpora (a city laid out by Sultan Sikandar) was laid out on the debris of the destroyed temples of the Hindus. In the neighbourhood of the royal palaces in Sikandarpora, the Sultan destroyed the temples of Maha-Shri built by Praversena and another by Tarapida. The material from these was used for constructing a 'Jami' mosque in the middle of the city." (Hasan, Tarikh-i-Kashmir) The sun temple of Martand resisted complete destruction for a year because of its strong structure. It was then destroyed by digging deep its foundations,filling the gaps with logs of wood, and setting it on fire. 40. Hasan, Tarikh-i-Kashmir; Fauq, Tarikh-i-Kashmir; Kashmir, Sufi. The temple at Bijbehara, which lay on the same grounds as an important university, was looted and destroyed by Sikandar (and previously damaged by Shahab-ud-din), and with the debris the Vijyesvara hospice was built. 40. Hasan, Tarikh-i-Kashmir; Fauq, Tarikh-i-Kashmir; Kashmir, Sufi.

Srivara recounts his acts of book burning: "Sikander burnt all books the same wise as fire burns hay". "Sikander under the inspiration of yavanas (Muslims) burnt books, (saklan pustakan) the same way as fire burns hay."

And Srivara also says: "All the scintillating works faced destruction in the same manner that lotus flowers face with the onset of frosty winter." 

(Srivara, Zaina Rajtarangini)

"There was no city, no town, no village, no wood, where the temples of the gods were unbroken. When Sureshavari, varaha and others were broken, the world trembled, but not so the mind of the wicked king. He forgot his kingly duties and took delight day and night in breaking images." (Jonraj, Rajtarangini)(Introduction to Jonraj's kings of Kashmir by Prof. S.K. Koul.)

"Towards the fag end of his life, he (Sultan Sikandar) was infused with a zeal for demolishing idol-houses, destroying the temples and idols of the infidels. He destroyed the massive temple at Beejbehara. He had designs to destroy all the temples and put an end to the entire community of infidels," (Bharistan-i-Shahi)


Another ruler who lived after Sikandar, Malik Musa Raina, destroyed many temples in Kashmir. Toufat. MS. (trans). ff. 155-212. http://www.kashmir-information.com/Baharistan/chapter4.html

(g) He destroyed and demolished the Hindu temples only to build mosques or hospices with their materials. The present mosque of Mir Ali Hamadani was built only after destroying the Kalishree temple. The Jamia Mosque in Srinagar was built on the foundations of a Buddhist Vihara after destroying it. The majority of mosques are built on temple foundations.

“the legend of Sikandar But-Shikan, the Iconoclast of Kashmir, who at the end of the fourteenth century destroyed every Hindu temple in the Valley [...], traveled down from the hills to the river-plains; and five hundred years later the mujahideen movement of Syed Ahmad Barilwi followed the well-trodden trail” (310). Salman Rushdie. Midnight's Children

2000 books held at the the Kashmir university, including the works of Milton, G.B. Shaw, Shakespeare, H.G. Wells, were destoryed. Book-shops wre looted in Srinagar. The governmental library of the Information Centre was looted and burned. http://ikashmir.net/wailvalley/B2chap11.html

It is surprising to learn that Jehangir in his religious fury dismantled the flight of steps linking the Temple of Shankaracharya to the river Jehlum near the Temple of goddess Tripursundary. Nurjohan as his celebrated queen utilised the same chiselled and sculptured stones to erect a massive mosque known as Pathar Masjid. The Muslims never used the mosque for prayers not for the fact that it was built with looted materials from a temple but because it was constructed at the instance of a woman who was a Shia-Muslim by faith and creed. The same mosque was declared as property of the state by the Sikh commander, Phula Singh, on the genuine plea that it was built with the materials dismantled and looted from a temple. The Muslims raised a hue and cry as the mosque continued to be locked in Dogra times and it was under a British conspiracy that the mosque was returned to the Muslims who trumpeted its occupation by the state as a great symbol of tyranny.

The Shivaite Shankaracharya temple is on a hillock to the south-east of Srinagar. It has 84 recesses on its exterior, and 36 stairs lead to the holy grounds. The hillock, according to Tarikh-i-Hassan, (pp 394-496, Vol. II) and (Waquiai Kashmir of Mulla Ahmed was known originally as Anjana and later as Jeth Ludrak and the temple was built by King Sandhiman of the Gonanda dynasty of Kashmir (471-536 Laukek Era), corresponding to 2605-2540 B.C. He gave the name Jeshteshwara to the temple and the hillock came to be known as Sandhiman Parbat after the name of the King. According to Dr.Stein, translator of Kalhana's Rajtarangani, King Gopadityas (369-309 B.C.) repaired the temple and donated two villages, the present Gupkar and Buchhwara (Bhaksira Vatika) for the maintenance of the temple. This time the hillock was given the name Gopadari or Gopa Hill. This name and Jeshteshwara for the temple prevailed till the Kashmiris dedicated the temple to the memory of Adi Shankaracharya, who visited Kashmir and stayed at the temple complex. This is confirmed by Tarikh-i-Hassan (pp.80-82, Vol.I), although there is some confusion about the dates of Adi Shankaracharya's visit to Kashmir. However, after the dedication, the temple and hill came to be known as the Shankaracharya temple and hill after the scholar. After the first repairs to the temple carried out by King Gopaditya, King Lalitaditya (697-734 A.D.) repaired it. The original Shiva Lingam in the temple, along with over 300 precious idols of Gods and Godesses therein and other structures and residential quarters around the temple, were destroyed by Sultan Sikandar, who ruled between 1389 and 1413 .D. King Zain-ul-Abedin (1420 to 1470 A.D.) repaired the temple and its dome, which had been damaged by an earthquake, as a gesture of goodwill towards the Hindus of Kashmir, who had been persecuted by his father and grandfather. Sheikh Ghulam Mohi-ud-din the Governor of Sikh ruler of Punjab (1841-1846 A.D.) also repaired the temple in his own tome. Later, Maharaja Ranbir Singh, the second Dogra ruler of Kashmir repaired the temple once again and installed the present Lingam in it. Later, a saint from Nepal and Swami Shiv rattan Gir Saraswati, who had his seat at Durganag temple complex, carried out some repairs to the temple. The Maharaja of Indore electrified the temple during the forties of this century and installed a dazzling flash-light on its top, making it conspicuous during the night also. (....)Calling the Shankaracharya hill as koh-i-Sulaiman and ancient temple thereon as Takht-i-Sulaiman is a later day ruse started sometime in the 19th century by some fanatical Muslims of Kashmir to complete the process of Islamisation of the historically known places of Hindu worship in the Valley and also to bury deep for ever the Hindu past of Kashmir. It is in line with the demolition of the then famous Hindu temple of Maharshi (Vishnu) and the erection thereon of a structure known now as Jama Masjid, conversion of the Mahakali Temple near Fatehkdal, Srinagar into the present Shah-i-Hamadan mosque, and the Ekadasharudra (Shiva) temple in Khanyar, Srinagar into the Ziarat Dastgir Sahib, not to speak of hundreds of temples throughout the Valley which were earlier destroyed completely or converted into mosques, ziarats and dargahs, during the Muslim rule in Kashmir (14th to 18th century A.D.) http://ikashmir.net/distortionsreality/chapter4.htmlKASHMIR DISTORTIONS AND REALITYDINANATH  RAINA

srg SII SIKANDER BUTSCHIKAN-SUHABHATTA Sita Ram Goel: The Story of Islamic Imperialism in India.

Or take the case of Suhabhatta, the chief minister of Sikandar Butshikan of Kashmir (1389-1413 AD). Suhabhatta who had renounced his ancestral faith for Islam is known as Suhã in the RãjatariñgiNî of Jonarãja. This historian of Kashmir records: “Instructed by mlechhas, (Suhã) instigated the king to break down the images of Gods. The king forgot his kingly duties and took a delight day and night in breaking images… He broke the images of MãrtaNDa, Vishaya, Κãna, Chakravaratî and Tripurešvara… There was no city, no town, no village, no wood where Suhã and the Turushka left the temples of Gods unbroken.

Suhabhatta continued to be the chief minister under Sikandar’s son, Ali Shah (1413-1420 AD). During Sikandar’s reign, he had stopped at destroying Hindu temples. Under the new regime, he started persecuting the Brahmins. Their religious performances and processions were banned. The traditional allowances of the Brahmins were stopped. The Brahmins, therefore, became beggars “who had to move from door to door, like dogs, for food”. Many of them tried to flee the land to escape oppression and save their caste. But they could not do so without an official permit. As a result, many of them committed suicide by fire, poison, drowning, hanging, and jumping from precipices. Amidst all this, Suhabhatta maintained that he bore no malice towards the Brahmins, and that he was only doing his duty towards Islam!

SRG SII SIKANDER LODI Take Sikandar Lodi. He was the son of a Pathan father. His mother was the daughter of a Hindu goldsmith of Sirhind. Abdullah records as follows in his Tãrîkh-i-Dãûdî written in the reign of Jahangir: “It is also related of this prince that before his accession, when a crowd of Hindûs had assembled in immense numbers at Kurkhet, he wished to go to Thanesar for the purpose of putting them all to death… He was so zealous a Musalmãn that he utterly destroyed diverse places of worship of the infidels and left not a vestige remaining of them. He entirely ruined the shrines of Mathura, the mine of infidelism, and turned the principal Hindû places of worship into caravanserais and colleges. Their stone images were given to the butchers to serve as meat-weights, and all the Hindûs in Mathura were strictly prohibited from shaving their heads and beards and bathing at the ghãts.” Badauni writes in his Muntakhãb-ut-Tawãrîkh that “he took the fort (of Untgarh) and gave the infidels as food for the sword. He then cast down the idol temples and built there a lofty mosque.” He repeated the performance at Narwar next year, and at many other places in the years that followed

SIKANDER LODI Sikandar Lodi’s “empire” was much smaller than that of Firuz Shah Tughlaq. But he enforced the “law” of Islam with no less zeal. A typical case of his reign is recorded by Abdulla in his Tãrîkhi-i-Dãûdî: “It is related in the Akbar Shahi that there came a Brahman by name Bodhan who had asserted one day in the presence of Musulmans that Islam was true, as was also his own religion. This speech of his was aired abroad, and came to the ears of the ulema… Azam Humayun, the governor of that district, sent the Brahman into the king’s presence at Sambal. Sultan Sikander …summoned all the wise men of note from every quarter… After investigating the matter, the ulema determined that he should be imprisoned and converted to Islam, or suffer death, and since the Brahman refused to apostatize he was accordingly put to death by the decree of the ulema. The Sultan after rewarding the learned casuists, gave them permission to depart.”


General history

Kashmir history

  • Bose, Sumantra (1997), The Challenge in Kashmir: Democracy, Self-Determination and a Just Peace, SAGE Publications, ISBN 978-0-8039-9350-1<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Bose, Sumantra (2003), Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-01173-2<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Keenan, Brigid (2013), Travels in Kashmir, Hachette India, ISBN 978-93-5009-729-8<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Korbel, Josef (1966) [first published 1954], Danger in Kashmir (second ed.), Princeton University Press<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lamb, Alastair (1991) [first published 1991 by Roxford Books], Kashmir: A Disputed Legacy, 1846–1990, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-577423-8<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lamb, Alastair (2002) [first published 1997 by Roxford Books], Incomplete Partition: The Genesis of the Kashmir Dispute, 1947–1948, Oxford: Oxford University Press<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Malik, Iffat (2005), Kashmir: Ethnic Conflict, International Dispute, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-579622-3<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Panikkar, K. M. (1930), Gulab Singh, London: Martin Hopkinson Ltd<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Rai, Mridu (2004), Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir, C. Hurst & Co, ISBN 1850656614<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Rao, Aparna, ed. (2008), The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture?, Manohar Publishers & Distributors, ISBN 978-81-7304-751-0<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • Evans, Alexander (2008), "Kashmiri Exceptionalism", in Rao, Aparna (ed.), The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture?, pp. 713–741<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • Kaw, Mushtaq A. (2008), "Land Rights in Rural Kashmir: A Study in Continuity and Change from Late-Sixteenth to Late-Twentieth Centuries", in Rao, Aparna (ed.), The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture?, pp. 207–234<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • Khan, Mohammad Ishaq (2008), "Islam, State and Society in Medieval Kashmir: A Revaluation of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani's Historical Role", in Rao, Aparna (ed.), The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture?, pp. 97–198<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • Madan, T. N. (2008), "Kashmir, Kashmiris, Kashmiriyat: An Introductory Essay", in Rao, Aparna (ed.), The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture?, pp. 1–36<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • Reynolds, Nathalène (2008), "Revisiting Key Episodes in Modern Kashmir History", in Rao, Aparna (ed.), The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture?, pp. 563–604<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • Witzel, Michael (2008), "The Kashmiri Pandits: Their Early History", in Rao, Aparna (ed.), The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture?, pp. 37–96<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • Zutshi, Chitraleka (2008), "Shrines, Political Authority, and Religious Identities in Late-Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth-century Kashmir", in Rao, Aparna (ed.), The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture?, pp. 235–258<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Schaffer, Howard B. (2009), The Limits of Influence: America's Role in Kashmir, Brookings Institution Press, ISBN 978-0-8157-0370-9<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Schofield, Victoria (2003) [First published in 2000], Kashmir in Conflict, London and New York: I. B. Taurus & Co, ISBN 1860648983<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Singh, Bawa Satinder (1971), "Raja Gulab Singh's Role in the First Anglo-Sikh War", Modern Asian Studies, 5 (1): 35–59, JSTOR 311654<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Zutshi, Chitralekha, Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, ISBN 978-1-85065-700-2<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Historical sources[edit]

  • Blank, Jonah. "Kashmir–Fundamentalism Takes Root", Foreign Affairs, 78,6 (November/December 1999): 36–42.
  • Drew, Federic. 1877. The Northern Barrier of India: a popular account of the Jammoo and Kashmir Territories with Illustrations; 1st edition: Edward Stanford, London. Reprint: Light & Life Publishers, Jammu. 1971.
  • Evans, Alexander. Why Peace Won't Come to Kashmir, Current History (Vol 100, No 645) April 2001 p. 170–175.
  • Hussain, Ijaz. 1998. "Kashmir Dispute: An International Law Perspective", National Institute of Pakistan Studies.
  • Irfani, Suroosh, ed "Fifty Years of the Kashmir Dispute": Based on the proceedings of the International Seminar held at Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir 24–25 August 1997: University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, AJK, 1997.
  • Joshi, Manoj Lost Rebellion: Kashmir in the Nineties (Penguin, New Delhi, 1999).
  • Khan, L. Ali The Kashmir Dispute: A Plan for Regional Cooperation 31 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 31, p. 495 (1994).
  • Knight, E. F. 1893. Where Three Empires Meet: A Narrative of Recent Travel in: Kashmir, Western Tibet, Gilgit, and the adjoining countries. Longmans, Green, and Co., London. Reprint: Ch'eng Wen Publishing Company, Taipei. 1971.
  • Knight, William, Henry. 1863. Diary of a Pedestrian in Cashmere and Thibet. Richard Bentley, London. Reprint 1998: Asian Educational Services, New Delhi.
  • Köchler, Hans. The Kashmir Problem between Law and Realpolitik. Reflections on a Negotiated Settlement. Keynote speech delivered at the "Global Discourse on Kashmir 2008." European Parliament, Brussels, 1 April 2008.
  • Moorcroft, William and Trebeck, George. 1841. Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara... from 1819 to 1825, Vol. II. Reprint: New Delhi, Sagar Publications, 1971.
  • Neve, Arthur. (Date unknown). The Tourist's Guide to Kashmir, Ladakh, Skardo &c. 18th Edition. Civil and Military Gazette, Ltd., Lahore. (The date of this edition is unknown – but the 16th edition was published in 1938).
  • Stein, M. Aurel. 1900. Kalhaṇa's Rājataraṅgiṇī–A Chronicle of the Kings of Kaśmīr, 2 vols. London, A. Constable & Co. Ltd. 1900. Reprint, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1979.
  • Younghusband, Francis and Molyneux, Edward 1917. Kashmir. A. & C. Black, London.
  • Norelli-Bachelet, Patrizia. "Kashmir and the Convergence of Time, Space and Destiny", 2004; ISBN 0-945747-00-4. First published as a four-part series, March 2002 – April 2003, in 'Prakash', a review of the Jagat Guru Bhagavaan Gopinath Ji Charitable Foundation. [4]
  • Muhammad Ayub. An Army; Its Role & Rule (A History of the Pakistan Army from Independence to Kargil 1947–1999) Rosedog Books, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA 2005. ISBN 0-8059-9594-3.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Kashmir: Muslims pressure Sikhs to convert or leave - Jihad Watch
FBI arrests chair of "Kashmiri American Council" for working as unregistered ISI agent for two decades - Jihad Watch
Jammu and Kashmir: Armed Muslim mob of 20,000 attacks Hindus, burns Hindu shops and homes
Kashmir: Muslims tell Hindus to leave or face death



https://www.republicworld.com/india-news/general-news/j-and-k-congress-sarpanch-ajay-pandita-shot-dead.html https://www.opindia.com/2020/06/ajay-panditas-family-slams-congress-leader-shashi-tharoor-for-politicising-his-killing/ https://www.opindia.com/2020/06/provide-arms-training-hindus-kashmir-protect-against-terror-sp-vaid/

  1. E.g. Edward Desmond: “Himalayan Ulster”, New York Review, 4.3.1993, a lengthy review of a number of books on Kashmir , manages to keep this Hindu-cleansing out of view, even though at least one of the books under review (viz. Jagmohan: My Frozen Turbulence in Kashmir) deals with the refugee crisis in some detail. Desmond knowingly and deliberately suppressed this information.