Islam and Sikhism

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Islam is an Abrahamic religion founded in the Arabian peninsula, while Sikhism is a Dharmic religion founded in the Indian subcontinent. Islam means "submission" (to Allah).[1][2] The word Sikh is derived from a Sanskrit word meaning 'disciple', or one who learns.[3]

Both religions are strictly monotheistic, although, unlike the monotheism of Islam, Sikhs believe that the 'One' creator permeates the creation.[4][5] Islam believes that Muhammad was the last prophet, to whom Quran was revealed by God in 7th century CE, and it restricts its primary source of teachings to the Quran and the Hadiths.[6] Sikhism was founded in 15th century CE by Guru Nanak and Guru Granth Sahib is the scripture followed by Sikhs as "The Living Guru".[4][7]

In Islam, the legal system based on the Quran and the Sunnah is known as Sharia; there is no such legal system mentioned in Guru Granth Sahib. Islam does not allow apostasy.[8] Sikhism allows freedom of conscience and apostasy.[9] Daily prayers are one of the pillars of Islam and mandatory for Muslims.[10] Baptized Sikhs read the five banis (prayers) as part of their daily routine, Nitnem. Islam requires annual zakah (alms giving) by Muslims, while Sikhism encourages alms giving but does not compel it.[11] Kirat Karna (doing an honest livelihood - earning honestly without any sort of corruption), Naam Japna (to praise, read and follow "The One") and Vand Chhako (Selfless service (Sewa) and sharing with others) are fundamental to Sikhism given by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Pilgrimage (to Mecca) is a crucial part of Islam, while Sikhism denounces pilgrimages, circumcision and rituals.[12]

Examples of wikipedia censorship[edit]

Comparison[edit]

Belief[edit]

God[edit]

Sikhism believes that God is formless (nirankar).[4][13] It has been called a form of pantheism,[5] as well as monotheism.[4]

Islam believes in one God with Muhammad as his messenger. It denies other gods, and is strictly monotheistic (tawḥīd).[14][15] This Islamic doctrine is a part of its Shahada.[15]

Guru and Messengers[edit]

Sikhism reveres the ten human Gurus of Sikhs, but accepts that there were many divine messengers, including Krishna, Moses, Jesus and Mohammed in other religions.[4]

Islam believes that before Muhammad there were many messengers of God, Muhammad was the last messenger, and Quran was the last revelation to the last prophet.[6][16]

Duties/Articles of Faith[edit]

The Five Pillars of Islam are duties incumbent on every Muslim. These duties are Shahada (testimony that "There is no god but God and Muhammad is the messenger of God"),[8] Salat (prayers), Zakat (Giving of Alms), Sawm (Fasting during Ramadan) and Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca). These five practices are essential to Sunni Islam; Shi'a Muslims subscribe to eight ritual practices which substantially overlap with the five Pillars.[17][18]

The three duties of Sikhs are Naam Japna (meditating on Waheguru's name), Kirat Karni (earn honest living) and Vand Chakna (sharing one's earning with others).[19]

Social beliefs[edit]

Sikhism has an ambivalent attitude towards miracles and rejects any form of discrimination within and against other religions.[20][20] Sikhism does not believe in rituals, but is permissive of traditions.[7]

Sikhism rejects asceticism and celibacy.[21] Sikh Guru Nanak accepted reincarnation.[21] Adi Granth of Sikhism recognizes and includes spiritual wisdom from other religions.[7][22][page needed] Islam warns against wrongful innovation (bid‘ah) to what is revealed in the Quran and the Hadiths.[7]

Islam considers itself to be a perfect and final religion.[22] It warns against innovation (bid‘ah) to what is revealed in the Quran and the Hadiths.[7] It considers other religions and non-believers in Islam as wrongly guided and infidels.[22][23] Islam does not recognize and accept spiritual wisdom from other religions.[7][23][24]

Islam also rejects asceticism and celibacy.[25] Islam believes in miracles and a final judgment day (Qiyama).[26] Islam believes that there is severe punishments in the afterlife (akhirah) for those who do not submit to Islam, who refuse or reject Islamic teachings, calling them kafir and infidels.[26][27][28] Sikhism does not preach or accept this view of those who are not Sikhs.

Apostasy[edit]

Apostasy, that is abandonment of Islam by a Muslim and conversion to another religion or atheism, is a religious crime in Islam punishable with death.[8][29] According to the Hadiths, states John Esposito, leaving Islam is punishable by "beheading, crucifixion or banishment", and Sharia (Islamic legal code) traditionally has required death by the sword for an adult sane male who voluntarily leaves Islam.[8] However, adds Esposito, modern thinkers have argued against execution as penalty for apostasy from Islam by invoking Quranic verse 2:257.[8]

Sikhism allows freedom of conscience and apostasy.[9]

View on other religions[edit]

Sikhism teaches that all religious traditions are valid, leading to the same Waheguru, and it rejects that any particular religion has a monopoly regarding absolute truth for all of humanity.[30]

Islam teaches that non-Islamic religious traditions have been distorted by man to suit their desires.[31][32]

Predestination[edit]

Islam believes in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs.[33][34] According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[35][full citation needed]

Sikhism also believes in predestination, and what one does, speaks and hears is already pre ordained, and one has to simply follow the laid down path per God's fiat or Hukum.[36]

Practice[edit]

Grooming and dress[edit]

The Khalsa panth among Sikhs are guided by the five Ks. They keep their head hair long (kesh) and both men and women wear turbans (head hair cover). They carry a wooden comb, wear an iron bracelet, wear a cotton underwear, and carry a kirpan (steel sword).[37] Non baptized Sikh women are free to dress as they wish in Sikhism. Sex segregation is not required in public places or Sikh temples by Sikhism.[38]

Muslim males are encouraged to grow their beards and trim the moustache.[39] Men in some Muslim communities wear turban (head cap).[40] Muslim men, as well as women, must dress modestly. For Muslim women, it is highly recommended to cover their hair. Muslim women are required to cover body in public,[41] with some Islamic scholars stating that the Islamic Hadiths require covering the face too.[42][43] These restrictions are called 'Hijab'. Islam encourages gender segregation in public, and Muslim men and women do not usually mix in public places such as mosques. These restrictions are part of 'Adab'.[39]

Circumcision[edit]

Sikhism does not require circumcision of either males or females, and criticizes the practice.[44]

In Islam, no verse in the Quran supports male or female circumcision (FGM/C).[45] Male circumcision is a widespread practice and considered mandatory for Muslim males according to Sunnah.[46] Muslim scholars disagree whether any authentic Sunnah in the hadiths supports the practice of female circumcision.[47][48][49] The Ijma, or consensus of Muslim scholars, varies by the Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) on whether circumcision is optional, honorable or obligatory for Muslim male and females.[note 1] Prominent Islamic scholars have both supported and opposed FGM/C for female Muslims.[50][51][note 1][note 2]

Food[edit]

Islam has Quranic restrictions on food, such as how the meat is prepared.[55] Halal meat is required in Islam, prepared by ritual slaughter that involves cutting the jugular veins of the animal with a sharp knife. This leads to death, through bleeding, of the animal.[56] Meat from animals that die of natural causes or accident is not allowed, unless necessary.[55] Beef is a sought after meat among Muslims, but they strictly avoid pork and alcohol.[57] Muslims fast for the month of Ramadan.

Sikhs are prohibited from eating Islamic halal or Jewish kosher style meat because to them, this manner of obtaining meat involves a ritualistic component and a slow death of the animal. This is known as Kutha meat.[58][59] The official Sikh Code of Conduct Sikh Rehat Maryada only forbids the consumption of Kutha meat and instead suggests Jhatka style of preparation.[59] Charity meals distributed at a Sikh Gurudwara, called a langar, is only lacto-vegetarian.[58][60] Some sects[61] of Sikhism disagree with the consumption of meat altogether.[62] In practice, most Sikhs avoid beef due to cultural reasons in India, and some Sikhs are strict lacto-vegetarians.[59]

Jizya[edit]

Muslim rulers in history, compelled the payment of a special tax called Jizya from dhimmi, those who refuse to convert to Islam but live in a Muslim state. Dhimmis were excluded from having to pay Islamic religious tax such as zakat and excluded from observing other Islamic religious obligations.[63][64] Jizya was a tool of social stratification and treasury's revenue from non-Muslims.[64] Jizya was a reminder of subordination of a non-Muslim under some Muslim rulers, and created a financial and political incentive to convert to Islam.[64][65]

Sikhism has never required a special tax for non-Sikhs.

Holy sites[edit]

The Harmandir Sahib (also known as the Golden Temple).

The Golden Temple (Harmandir Sahib) in Amritsar, India is not only a central religious place of the Sikhs, but also a symbol of human brotherhood and equality. The four entrances of this holy shrine from all four directions, signify that people belonging to every walk of life are equally welcome. The Golden Temple is a holy site for Sikhs and is welcome to people of any faith.[66]

Mecca in Saudi Arabia is the central religious place in Islam.[67][68] Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in Islam,[69] and a pilgrimage to it, known as the Hajj, is one of the pillars of Islam. Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city. Although in history, they've sometimes allowed non-Muslims to visit.[citation needed]

Pilgrimage

Sikhs do not believe in pilgrimages; Muslims, in contrast, consider Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) a crucial part of the faith.

History[edit]

During the Mughal Empire, Sikh gurus were persecuted along with other non-Muslims. The fifth Guru of Sikhs, Guru Arjan was executed by Jahangir.[70] There were occasional exceptions to the historical persecution. During Mughal Emperor Akbar's rule, for example, Sikhism and diverse religions were temporarily accepted. Akbar visited the third Sikh Guru, Guru Amardas at Goindwal, ate at the Langar kitchen, and offered donations for Langar.[71][72]

In other periods, Sikhs were persecuted during the Islamic rule of South Asia. Guru Arjan was tortured and executed by Mughal emperor Jahangir. Guru Hargobind, (sixth Guru of the Sikhs), after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan saw that it would no longer be possible to protect the Sikh community without the aid of arms.[73] He built Akal Takhat the Throne of the Immortal and it is the highest political institution of the Sikhs and he also wore two swords of Miri and Piri.[74]

Guru Tegh Bahadur (ninth Guru) was tortured and beheaded by Aurangzeb at Chandni Chowk in Delhi,[75] for refusing to convert to Islam and for protecting Kashmiri Hindus who were being forced to convert to Islam.[76][77][78] His fellow devotees Bhai Mati Das, Bhai Sati Das and Bhai Dayala were also tortured and executed, while Guru Tegh Bahadur was forced to watch.[79][80] Tenth Guru Guru Gobind Singh formed Khalsa known as Army of Akal Purakh (Immortal) and Gave 5 Ks to Khalsa. Two of the younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh aged 9 and 7 were bricked up alive by the Muslim governor Wazir Khan in Sarhand (Punjab). When Guru Gobind Singh was in South India, he sent Banda Singh Bahadur to chastise the repressive Mughal faiy`dar of Sirhind. Banda Singh captured Sirhind and laid the foundation of Sikh empire.[81][82] According to a popular myth, the Nawab of Malerkotla Sher Mohammad Khan, protested against the execution of Sahibzadas, after which Guru Gobind Singh blessed the state. This is considered as a reason by many historians due to which Malerkotla was the only city not harmed by Banda Singh Bahadur during his military campaign.[83][84]

The Muslims under Ranjit Singh of the Sikh Empire were mostly treated favorably and comprised the majority of the population of the empire. Ranjit Singh declared during his coronation that Muslims would be governed under Islamic law and appointed many of them in important official positions. The Muslim religious leadership and mosques continuously received state support under Sikh rule.[85][86] This was in contrast with the Muslims of Kashmir valley where Sikh rule was generally considered oppressive,[87] protected perhaps by the remoteness of Kashmir from the capital of the Sikh Empire in Lahore.[88] The region had passed from the control of the Durrani Empire of Afghanistan, and four centuries of Muslim rule under the Mughals and the Afghans, to the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh in 1819.[89] As the Kashmiris had suffered under the Afghans, they initially welcomed the new Sikh rulers,[90] however this perception later changed.[87] The Sikh rulers of Kashmir enacted a number of anti-Muslim laws,[88] which included handing out death sentences for cow slaughter,[90] closing down the Jamia Masjid in Srinagar, and banning the azaan, the public Muslim call to prayer.[88] Several European visitors who visited Kashmir during Sikh rule wrote of the abject poverty of the vast Muslim peasantry and of the exorbitant taxes under the Sikh rulers. High taxes, according to some contemporary accounts, had depopulated large tracts of the countryside.[90] However, after a famine in 1832, the Sikhs reduced the land tax.[88]

Recent relations[edit]

During the partition of India in 1947, there was much bloodshed between Sikhs and Muslims, there was mass migration of people from all walks of life to leave their homes and belongings and travel by foot across the new border, on trains and on land people were killed in what was felt to be revenge attacks.[91] Millions of Sikhs left Pakistan and moved into India, while millions of Muslims left India and moved into Pakistan.[91] Malerkotla was however not affected and was viewed as a safe haven for Muslims during the partition. The popular myth associated with it is that the town was not impacted because of Guru Gobind Singh blessing it after its Nawab protested against the execution of the Guru's sons.[84]

Since 9/11 Sikhs in America have been endured hate crimes, denial of employment, bullying in schools and profiling in airports.[92]

In the UK, there have some instances of tension between Sikhs and Muslims on allegations that some Sikhs have been forced to convert to Islam.[93][94]

In 2009, the Taliban in Pakistan demanded that Sikhs in the region pay them the jizya (poll tax levied by Muslims on non-Muslim minorities).[95]

In 2010 the Taliban, an Islamic terrorist group, attacked many minorities including Sikhs resulting in two beheadings.[96]

In April 2016, two Muslim teens bombed a gurdwara in the German city of Essen. The two teen converted fire extinguishers into an explosive device. The devices detonated after a wedding party had left for the reception. A gurdwara priest was injured seriously, while two others were treated for minor injuries. The gurdwara building was damaged severely. One of the teens was in deradicalization program. The two denied it was religiously motivated saying “just for the kick of building fireworks!” However, before setting off the blast, the two 16-year-olds tried to break into the Sikh place of worship, North Rhine Westphalia (NRW).[97]

Sufi Muslims and Sikhs[edit]

Sufi Muslims, a minority group of mystical ascetics in Islam, considered to be one of its many sects,[98][99] have been long considered to be heretics and blasphemous in Wahabi and Salafi Islam.[100][101][102] The Sikh Gurus had cordial relations with many Muslim Sufi Saints.[103]

In December 1588, a Sufi saint of Lahore, Mian Mir, visited Guru Arjan Dev at the initiation ceremony before the construction of the Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple).[104]

Ahmadiyya Muslims and Sikhs[edit]

Ahmadiyya, a minority reform sect that arose within Islam, believe in prophets after Muhammad and consider themselves to be Muslims.[105] They are, however, not recognized as Muslims by mainstream Sunni and Shia Islam, and are treated as blasphemous and persecuted.[105][106] Since the 18th century, Sufis and ancestors of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad – the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement – had cordial relations with Sikhs, and they fought with Sikhs to resist the persecution by Sunni-based Mughal rule in northwest region of South Asia.[107] However, as Ranjit Singh established the Sikh Empire, there were conflicts between the Sikhs and the Jagir of Ahmad's father.[107]


Quotes[edit]

In 1675 Aurangzeb tortured Guru Tegh Bahadur, because he resisted the forcible conversion of Hindus in Kashmir. Aurangzeb destroyed thereafter many Sikh gurudwaras. Sita Ram Goel: The Story of Islamic Imperialism in India.

Jahangir. In the very first year of his reign, he tortured Guru Arjun Dev to death. His contempt for Hindus comes out clearly in his Tuzuk-i-Jahãngîrî: “A Hindu named Arjun lived in Govindwal on the bank of river Beas in the garb of a saint and in ostentation. From all sides cowboys and idiots became his fast followers. The business had flourished for three or four generations. For a long time it had been in my mind to put a stop to this dukãn-e-bãtil (mart of falsehood) or to bring him into the fold of Islam.” According to other accounts, he asked the Guru to include some sûrahs of the Quran in the Ãdi Grantha, which the Guru refused to do. In the eighth year of his reign, he destroyed the temple of Bhagwat at Ajmer. He persecuted the Jains in Gujarat, and ordered that Jain monks should not be seen in his kingdom on pain of death. Finally, he sent Murtaza Khan to Kangra for reducing that city of temples. The siege lasted for 20 months at the end of which he himself went to Kangra for slaughtering cows in that sacred place of Hindus, and building a mosque where none had existed before. Sita Ram Goel: The Story of Islamic Imperialism in India.

SRG MS

In another letter, which he wrote to his contemporary Muslim magnates ran as follows: “My real object is the establishment of jihãd against the Sikhs of the Punjab and not to stay in the countries of Afghanistan and Yagistan. The long-haired infidels who have seized sovereignty over Punjab are very experienced, clever and deceitful… The ill-natured Sikhs and the ill-fated polytheists have gained control over the Western parts of India from the banks of Indus to the capital city of Delhi.”2

The second letter is found in this form in Sawãnih Ahmadî, a biography of Barelvi. But there is another version, preserved in Patna University Library, which reads as under: “My real objective is the establishment of jihãd and carrying of war into Hindustan and not to stay in the lands of Khorasan… The Christian infidels who have gained possession over India are very artful and deceptive… The ill-natured Christians and ill-fated Mushriks have gained control over the various parts of India stretching from the bank of Indus to the shore of the ocean which covers a distance of six months journey.”3

Obviously, this version was meant for the consumption of Muslim masses. It is on record that Barelvi was not only seeking monetary help from Hindu Rajas but also patronage for his followers who were operating from within India. Hindu Rajas, however, were not against the Sikhs. At the same time, he was seeking help from Muslim magnates, most of whom were against the Sikhs but allied with the British. Muslim masses alone were inimical to both. Many Muslim theologians have followed in the footsteps of the first Christian missionary, St. Paul, and tried to be ‘all things to all men’. Barelvi was neither the first such Muslim missionary nor the last. But he achieved a minor miracle when he remained convinced that it was the Sikhs and the British who were clever and deceitful. Such a combination of scoundrelism and self-righteousness is rare even among Muslim theologians and missionaries.

1 Qeyamuddin Ahmad, The Wahabi Movement in India, Calcutta, 1966, pp. 365-366.

2 Ibid., p.358. He uses the term ‘polytheists’ for Sikhs who had not yet started swearing by monotheism, and were regarded as a Hindu sect.

3 Ibid. This letter refers to both the British and the Sikhs who are again denounced as mushriks, polytheists.

To resume the story, Barelvi’s confidence in a jihãd against the British collapsed when he surveyed the extent and the magnitude of British power in India. He did the next best under the circumstances, and declared a jihãd against the Sikh power in the Punjab, Kashmir and the North-West Frontier. The British on their part welcomed this change and permitted Barelvi to travel towards the border of Afghanistan at a leisurely pace, collecting money and manpower along the way. It was during this journey that Barelvi stayed with or met several Hindu princes, feigned that his fulminations against the Sikhs were a fake, and that he was going out of India in order to establish a base for fighting against the British. It is surmised that some Hindu princes took him at his word, and gave him financial help. To the Muslim princes, however, he told the truth, namely, that he was up against the Sikhs because they “do not allow the call to prayer from mosques and the killing of cows.”6

Barelvi set up his base in the North-West Frontier near Afghanistan. The active assistance he expected from the Afghan king did not materialise because that country was in a mess at that time. But the British connived at the constant flow not only of a sizable manpower but also of a lot of finance. Muslim magnates in India were helping him to the hilt. His basic strategy was to conquer Kashmir before launching his major offensive against the Punjab. But he met with very little success in that direction in spite of several attempts. Finally, he met his Waterloo in 1831 when the Sikhs under Kunwar Sher Singh stormed his citadel at Balakot. The great mujãhid fell in the very first battle he ever fought. His corpse along with that of his second in command was burnt, and the ashes were scattered in the winds. Muslims hail him as a shahîd.

The scattered remnants of the Wahabis fought a few more skirmishes with the Sikhs. But they also met with no success.

5 Aziz Ahmad, Studies in Islamic Culture, Pp. 211-212. 6 Targhîb-al-Jîhãd translated by W.W. Hunter, p. 140. The fond belief that the Amir of Afghanistan and the Frontier Tribals could be invited for liberating India from foreign rule, lingered for a long time. It was soon forgotten that the belief was entertained or fostered by Muslim ‘revivalists’ in the 18th and the 19th centuries. The Indian “revolutionaries” like M.N. Roy, Raja Mahendra Pratap, and Chandrashekhar Azad were latter-day victims of this illusion and tried to help ‘our friends in the North-West’ with munitions and money. The illusion suffered a set back only when Pandit Nehru went out to the NWF to fraternize with the ‘brave Pathans’ soon after becoming virtual Prime Minister of India in 1946, and was welcomed with bullets. He never mentioned the ‘brave Pathans’ again. SRG MS

A similar Sufi saint who died a mere 79 years before Waliullah’s birth, was Ahmad Sirhindi (1564-1624). He was always foaming at the mouth against Akbar’s policy of peace with the Hindus. He proclaimed himself the Mujaddid-i-alf-i-sãnî, ‘renovator of the second millennium of Islam’. Besides writing several books, he addressed many letters to several powerful courtiers in the reign of Akbar and Jahangir. His Maktûbãt-i-Imãm Rabbãnî have been collected and published in three volumes. According to Professor S.A.A. Rizvi, “‘Shariat can be fostered through the sword’ was the slogan he raised for his contemporaries.”7 A few specimens should suffice to show the quality of this man’s mind. In letter No. 163 he wrote: “The honour of Islam lies in insulting kufr and kafirs. One who respects the kafirs dishonours the Muslims… The real purpose of levying jiziya on them is to humiliate them to such an extent that they may not be able to dress well and to live in grandeur. They should constantly remain terrified and trembling. It is intended to hold them under contempt and to uphold the honour and might of Islam.” In Letter No. 81 he said: “Cow-sacrifice in India is the noblest of Islamic practices. The kafirs may probably agree to pay jiziya but they shall never concede to cow-sacrifice.” After Guru Arjun Deva had been tortured and done to death by Jahangir, he wrote in letter No. 193 that “the execution of the accursed kafir of Gobindwal is an important achievement and is the cause of the great defeat of the Hindus.”8 7 S.A.A. Rizvi, Muslim Revivalist Movements in Northern India in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, Agra, 1965, p.247. 8 Ibid., pp. 248-249. SRG MS

Sirhindi sufi 4. Before that kãfir [Guru Arjun Deva] was executed this recluse [meaning himself] had seen in a dream that the reigning king had smashed the skull of idolatry. Indeed, he was a great idolater, and the leader of the idolaters, and the chief of unbelievers. May Allah blast him! The Holy Prophet who is the ruler of religion as well as the world, has cursed the idolaters as follows in some of his prayers – “O Allah, demean their society, create divisions in their ranks, destroy their homes, and get at them like the mighty one.” 11 Maktûbãt-i-Imãm Rabbãnî translated into Urdu by Maulana Muhammad Sa’id Ahmad Naqshbandi, Deoband, 1988, Volume I, p.211. Emphases added. This letter was written to the Khan-i-Azam of that time. 14 Ibid., pp.435-36. This letter was written to Shaikh Farid. srg ms

walliulla sufi Religious as well as worldly interests dictate that soon after winning the war with the Marhatahs, you should turn towards the forts of the Jats, and conquer them with the blessings from the hidden (occult) world. Next is the turn of the Sikhs. This group should also be defeated, while waiting for grace from Allah. 18 Translated from the Urdu version of K.A. Nizami, Shãh Walîullah Dehlvî ke Siyãsî Maktûbãt, Second Edition, Delhi, 1969 27 Ibid., pp.104-05. srg ms



  • Having lifted Islam to the head, You have engulfed Hindustan in dread....
    Such cruelties have they inflicted, and yet Your mercy remains unmoved....
    Should the strong attack the strong the heart does not burn. But when the strong crush the helpless, surely the One who was to protect them has to be called to account....
    O' Lord, these dogs have destroyed this diamond-like Hindustan, (so great is their terror that) no one asks after those who have been killed, and yet You do not pay heed...
    • Guru Granth Sahib, quoted in Arun Shourie, "The Litmus Test of Whether Your History is Secular" [1]
  • "Hindus have been forbidden to pray at the time of the Muslim's namaz, Hindusociety has been left without a bath, without a tilak. Even those who have never uttered "Ram", even they can get no respite by shouting "Khuda, Khuda"....
    The few who have survived Babar's jails wail.... The desolation which has come over the land.... The entire races which have been exterminated, which have been humiliated..."
    • Guru Granth Sahib, quoted in Arun Shourie, "The Litmus Test of Whether Your History is Secular" [2]
  • These days the accursed infidel of Gobindwal was very fortunately killed. It is a cause of great defeat for the reprobate Hindus. With whatever intention and purpose they are killed – the humiliation of infidels is for Muslims, life itself. Before this Kafir (Infidel) was killed, I had seen in a dream that the Emperor of the day had destroyed the crown of the head of Shirk or infidelity. It is true that this infidel [Guru Arjun] was the chief of the infidels and a leader of the Kafirs. The object of levying Jizya (tax on non-Muslims) on them is to humiliate and insult the Kafirs, and Jihad against them and hostility towards them are the necessities of the Mohammedan faith.
    • Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi, Letter to Murtaza Khan, On the execution of Guru Arjan. Sirhindi, Maktubat-i Imam-i Rabbani, I-iii, letter No. 193, pp. 95-6. Friedman Yohanan (1966), Shaikh Ahmad Sirhandi: An Outline of His Image in the Eyes of Posterity, Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, pp. 110-112. (This is from records of Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi, composed after the punishment and execution of Guru Arjun)
  • Sri Aurobindo, for one, insisted on the radically different spirit in Sikhism as compared with Islam: 'Those ways of Indian cult which most resemble a popular form of Theism, are still something more; for they do not exclude, but admit the many aspects of God. (...) The later religious forms which most felt the impress of the Islamic idea, like Nanak's worship of the timeless One, Akla, and the reforming creeds of today, born under the influence of the West, yet draw away from the limitations of western or Semitic monotheism. Irresistibly they turn from these infantile conceptions towards the fathomless truth of Vedanta.'
    • Sri Aurobindo: Foundations of Indian Culture, p.135, quoted in Koenraad Elst, Ayodhya: The Case Against the Temple (2002)
  • The details of atrocities committed on Sikhs and Hindus given in these pages are not full or even a fairly large proportion of what actually befell. They are only representative episodes of what happened in a few villages and towns all over West Punjab and other West Pakistan areas. Imagine such things happening in thousands upon thousands of villages and hundreds of towns, and you will then be able to take in the proportions somewhat close to what the reality was-which, in the last analysis must, however, remain inexpressible in its full horror. The facts drawn upon are statements of sufferers of these horrors, recorded from complaints made to the authorities, from reliable press reports and from statements recorded with scrupulous fidelity and signed by those who made them, in the refugee camps in East Punjab.
    • Gurbachan Singh Talib, Muslim League Attack on the Sikhs and Hindus in Punjab, 1947 (1950)
  • All these happenings occurred at a time when in India, Mahatma Gandhi undertook his last fast to get better treatment for the Indian Muslims. That was the response in Pakistan to the Mahatma's gesture, and the faithfully carrying out of the Mahatma's instructions by Hindus and Sikhs. Exactly when Delhi was being made safe for Muslims, in Karachi 800 Sikhs were massacred, and all Hindus looted and despoiled, had to move into refugee camps.
    • Gurbachan Singh Talib, Muslim League Attack on the Sikhs and Hindus in Punjab, 1947 (1950)
  • In another letter, which he wrote to his contemporary Muslim magnates ran as follows: “My real object is the establishment of jihãd against the Sikhs of the Punjab and not to stay in the countries of Afghanistan and Yagistan. The long-haired infidels who have seized sovereignty over Punjab are very experienced, clever and deceitful… The ill-natured Sikhs and the ill-fated polytheists have gained control over the Western parts of India from the banks of Indus to the capital city of Delhi.”
    • Goel, S. R. (1995). Muslim separatism: Causes and consequences.
  • To resume the story, Barelvi’s confidence in a jihãd against the British collapsed when he surveyed the extent and the magnitude of British power in India. He did the next best under the circumstances, and declared a jihãd against the Sikh power in the Punjab, Kashmir and the North-West Frontier. The British on their part welcomed this change and permitted Barelvi to travel towards the border of Afghanistan at a leisurely pace, collecting money and manpower along the way. It was during this journey that Barelvi stayed with or met several Hindu princes, feigned that his fulminations against the Sikhs were a fake, and that he was going out of India in order to establish a base for fighting against the British. It is surmised that some Hindu princes took him at his word, and gave him financial help. To the Muslim princes, however, he told the truth, namely, that he was up against the Sikhs because they “do not allow the call to prayer from mosques and the killing of cows.”
    Barelvi set up his base in the North-West Frontier near Afghanistan. The active assistance he expected from the Afghan king did not materialise because that country was in a mess at that time. But the British connived at the constant flow not only of a sizable manpower but also of a lot of finance. Muslim magnates in India were helping him to the hilt. His basic strategy was to conquer Kashmir before launching his major offensive against the Punjab. But he met with very little success in that direction in spite of several attempts. Finally, he met his Waterloo in 1831 when the Sikhs under Kunwar Sher Singh stormed his citadel at Balakot. The great mujãhid fell in the very first battle he ever fought. His corpse along with that of his second in command was burnt, and the ashes were scattered in the winds. Muslims hail him as a shahîd.
    The scattered remnants of the Wahabis fought a few more skirmishes with the Sikhs. But they also met with no success.
    • Goel, S. R. (1995). Muslim separatism: Causes and consequences.
  • In 1675 Aurangzeb tortured Guru Tegh Bahadur, because he resisted the forcible conversion of Hindus in Kashmir. Aurangzeb destroyed thereafter many Sikh gurudwaras.
    • Goel, S. R. (2001). The story of Islamic imperialism in India.

Notes[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 According to Islamic scholars Ibrahim Lethome Asmani and Maryam Sheikh Abdi, "Examination of all the texts on Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) shows that scholars have no consensus on FGM/C. For example the four schools of thought express the following views: The Hanafi view is that it is a sunnah (optional act) for both females and males; Maliki hold the view that it is wajib (obligatory) for males and sunnah (optional) for females; Shafi’i view it as wajib (obligatory) for both females and males; Hanbali have two opinions: it is wajib (obligatory) for both males and females, and it is wajib (obligatory) for males and makrumah (honourable) for females.[52]
  2. According to 2016 estimates of UNICEF, at least 200 million girls and women alive today worldwide have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting.[53] The 2013 report by the UNICEF states, "in many countries, FGM/C prevalence is highest among Muslim girls and women. The practice, however, is also found among Catholic and other Christian communities."[54]

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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]