Indian sine tables
Indian sine tables were constructed and improved upon by several ancient Indian mathematicians including the authors of Surya Siddhanta and Āryabhaṭa. Earliest sine table is found in Surya Siddhanta and another text is the astronomical treatise Āryabhaṭīya which was composed during the fifth century by the Indian mathematician and astronomer Āryabhaṭa (476–550 CE), for the computation of the halfchords of certain set of arcs of a circle. The table found in Surya Siddhanta is a table (in modern terms) of values of R.sinθ where R is the Indian standard radius of 3438 minutes. Āryabhaṭa's table is also not a set of values of the trigonometric sine function in a conventional sense; it is a table of the first differences of the values of trigonometric sines expressed in arcminutes, and because of this the table is also referred to as Āryabhaṭa's table of sinedifferences.^{[1]}^{[2]}
Some believe that the Āryabhaṭa's table was the first sine table ever constructed in the history of mathematics.^{[3]} Āryabhaṭa's table remained as the standard sine table of ancient India. There were continuous attempts to improve the accuracy of this table. These endeavors culminated in the eventual discovery of the power series expansions of the sine and cosine functions by Madhava of Sangamagrama (c.1350 – c.1425), the founder of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics, and the tabulation of a sine table by Madhava with values accurate to seven or eight decimal places.
Ancient Indian concepts of Jya (chord) and Chaap or Dhanu (arc)[edit]
Jyā, kotijyā and utkramajyā are three trigonometric functions introduced by Indian mathematicians and astronomers. The earliest known Indian treatise containing references to these functions is Surya Siddhanta.^{[4]} These are functions of arcs of circles and not functions of angles. Jyā and kotijyā are closely related to the modern trigonometric functions of sine and cosine. In fact, the origins of the modern terms of "sine" and "cosine" have been traced back to the Sanskrit words jyā and kotijyā.^{[4]}
Definition[edit]
Let 'arc AB' denote an arc whose two extremities are A and B of a circle with center O. If a perpendicular BM be dropped from B to OA, then:
 jyā of arc AB = BM
 kotijyā of arc AB = OM
 utkramajyā of arc AB = MA
If the radius of the circle is R and the length of arc AB is s, the angle subtended by arc AB at O measured in radians is θ = s / R. The three Indian functions are related to modern trigonometric functions as follows:
 jyā ( arc AB ) = R sin ( s / R )
 kotijyā ( arc AB ) = R cos ( s / R )
 utkramajyā ( arc AB ) = R ( 1  cos ( s / R ) ) = R versin ( s / R )
Terminology[edit]
An arc of a circle is like a bow and so is called a dhanu or cāpa which in Sanskrit means "a bow". The straight line joining the two extremities of an arc of a circle is like the string of a bow and this line is a chord of the circle. This chord is called a jyā which in Sanskrit means "a bowstring". The word jīvá is also used as a synonym for jyā in geometrical literature.^{[5]} At some point, Indian astronomers and mathematicians realised that computations would be more convenient if one used the halves of the chords instead of the full chords and associated the halfchords with the halves of the arcs.^{[4]}^{[6]} The halfchords were called ardhajyās or jyāardhas. These terms were again shortened to jyā by omitting the qualifier ardha which meant "half of".
The Sanskrit word koṭi has the meaning of "point, cusp", and specifically "the curved end of a bow". In trigonometry, it came to denote "the complement of an arc to 90°". Thus koṭijyā is "the jyā of the complementary arc". In Indian treatises, especially in commentaries, koṭijyā is often abbreviated as kojyā. The term koṭi also denotes "the side of a right angled triangle". Thus koṭijyā is the base/Run of a right triangle with jyā being the perpendicular/rise .^{[4]}
Utkrama means "inverted", thus utkramajyā means "inverted chord". The tabular values of utkramajyā are derived from the tabular values of jyā by subtracting the elements from the radius in the reversed order. This is really the arrow between the bow and the bowstring and hence it has also been called bāṇa, iṣu or śara all meaning "arrow".^{[4]}
An arc of a circle which subtends an angle of 90° at the center is called a vrittapāda (a quadrat of a circle). Each zodiacal sign defines an arc of 30° and three consecutive zodiacal signs defines a vrittapāda. The jyā of a vrittapāda is the radius of the circle. The Indian astronomers coined the term trijyā to denote the radius of the base circle, the term trijyā being indicative of "the jyā of three signs". The radius is also called vyāsārdha, viṣkambhārdha, vistarārdha, etc., all meaning "semidiameter".^{[4]}
According to one convention, the functions jyā and kotijyā are respectively denoted by "Rsin" and "Rcos" treated as single words.^{[4]} Others denote jyā and kotijyā respectively by "Sin" and "Cos" (the first letters being capital letters in contradistinction to the first letters being small letters in ordinary sine and cosine functions).^{[6]}
From jyā to sine[edit]
The origins of the modern term sine have been traced to the Sanskrit word jyā,^{[7]}^{[8]} or more specifically to its synonym jīva. This term was adopted in medieval Islamic mathematics, transliterated in Arabic as jība (جيب). Since Arabic is written without short vowels – and as a borrowing the long vowel is here denoted with yāʾ – this was interpreted as the homographic jayb, which means "bosom". The text's 12thcentury Latin translator used the Latin equivalent for "bosom", sinus.^{[9]} When jyā became sinus, by analogy kojyā became cosinus.
The Indian sine tables[edit]
Surya Siddhanta sine table[edit]
The Surya Siddhanta provides methods to calculate the sine value in chapter 2. It uses an Indian standard circle of radius 3438 units. It divides the quadrant into 24 equal segments with each segment sweeping an angle of 3.75° and a length of 225 minutes. The verse 1516 translates as
The eighth part of the number of minutes contained in a zodiac sign (Rashi) (i.e. 1800) is the first sine (Jya). Divide the first sine by itself, subtract the quotient by that sine and add the remainder to that sine: the sum will be the second sine. In this manner divide successively the sines by the first sine, subtract the quotient from the divisor and add the remainder to the sine last found and the sum will be next sine. Thus you get twenty four sines (in a quadrant of a circle whose radius is 3438 units)^{[10]}
The verse 1722 translates as
The Twenty four sines are 225, 449, 671, 890, 1105, 1315, 1520, 1719, 1910, 2093, 2267, 2431, 2585, 2728, 2859, 2978, 3084, 3177, 3256, 3321, 3372, 3409, 3431, 3438.
Subtract the sines separately from 3438 in the inverse order, the remainders are the versed sines. ^{[11]}
The verse 2327 translates as
The versed sines in a quadrant are 7, 29, 66, 117, 182, 261, 354, 460, 579, 710, 853, 1007, 1171, 1345, 1528, 1719, 1918, 2123, 2333, 2548, 2767, 2989, 3213, 3438.^{[12]}
Āryabhaṭa's sine table[edit]
The stanza in Āryabhaṭiya describing the sine table is reproduced below:
मखि भखि फखि धखि णखि ञखि ङखि हस्झ स्ककि किष्ग श्घकि किघ्व  घ्लकि किग्र हक्य धकि किच स्ग झश ङ्व क्ल प्त फ छ कलाअर्धज्यास् 
The second section of Āryabhaṭiya titled Ganitapādd a contains a stanza indicating a method for the computation of the sine table. There are several ambiguities in correctly interpreting the meaning of this verse. For example, the following is a translation of the verse given by Katz wherein the words in square brackets are insertions of the translator and not translations of texts in the verse.^{[13]}
 "When the second half[chord] partitioned is less than the first halfchord, which is [approximately equal to] the [corresponding] arc, by a certain amount, the remaining [sinedifferences] are less [than the previous ones] each by that amount of that divided by the first halfchord."
This may be referring to the fact that the second derivative of the sine function is equal to the negative of the sine function. Āryabhaṭa has chosen the number 3438 as the value of radius of the base circle for the computation of his sine table. The rationale of the choice of this parameter is the idea of measuring the circumference of a circle in angle measures. In astronomical computations distances are measured in degrees, minutes, seconds, etc. In this measure, the circumference of a circle is 360° = (60 × 360) minutes = 21600 minutes. The radius of the circle, the measure of whose circumference is 21600 minutes, is 21600 / 2π minutes. Computing this using the value π = 3.1416 known to Aryabhata one gets the radius of the circle as 3438 minutes approximately. Āryabhaṭa's sine table is based on this value for the radius of the base circle.
The values encoded in Āryabhaṭa's Sanskrit verse can be decoded using the numerical scheme explained in Āryabhaṭīya, and the decoded numbers are listed in the table below. In the table, the angle measures relevant to Āryabhaṭa's sine table are listed in the second column. The third column contains the list the numbers contained in the Sanskrit verse given above in Devanagari script. For the convenience of users unable to read Devanagari, these wordnumerals are reproduced in the fourth column in ISO 15919 transliteration. The next column contains these numbers in the HinduArabic numerals. Āryabhaṭa's numbers are the first differences in the values of sines. The corresponding value of sine (or more precisely, of jya) can be obtained by summing up the differences up to that difference. Thus the value of jya corresponding to 18° 45′ is the sum 225 + 224 + 222 + 219 + 215 = 1105. For assessing the accuracy of Āryabhaṭa's computations, the modern values of jyas are given in the last column of the table.
Comparing different sine tables[edit]
Surya Siddhanta is the earliest known text to contain the sine table. Aryabhata's sine table calculates the same sine values as calculated in the Surya Siddhanta. It is evident that several Indian mathematicians improved upon the sine tables. Aryabhata calculates the sine values which are same as the ones in Surya Siddhanta but Madhava has not rounded off the Jyā values and have given them further in minutes, seconds and thirds. Madhava's Jyā values derived into modern sine values provide astonishing accuracy upto 6 decimals places when compared with modern sine values.
Sl. No  Angle (in degrees, arcminutes) 
Āryabhaṭa's value of Jyā (R.sine) 
Surya Siddhanta value of Jyā (R.sine)  Surya Siddhanta versed sines  Modern value of Jyā R.sine 
Madhava's sine values  Madhava's derived sine values  Modern sine values 

1  03° 45′

225′

225′

7'

224.8560

0.06540314  0.06540313  
2  07° 30′

449′

449′

29'

448.7490

0.13052623  0.13052619  
3  11° 15′

671′

671′

66'

670.7205

0.19509032  0.19509032  
4  15° 00′

890′

890′

117′

889.8199

0.25881900  0.25881905  
5  18° 45′

1105′

1105′

182′

1105.1089

0.32143947  0.32143947  
6  22° 30′

1315′

1315′

261′

1315.6656

0.38268340  0.38268343  
7  26° 15′

1520′

1520′

354′

1520.5885

0.44228865  0.44228869  
8  30° 00′

1719′

1719′

460′

1719.0000

0.49999998  0.50000000  
9  33° 45′

1910′

1910′

579′

1910.0505

0.55557022  0.55557023  
10  37° 30′

2093′

2093′

710′

2092.9218

0.60876139  0.60876143  
11  41° 15′

2267′

2267′

853′

2266.8309

0.65934580  0.65934582  
12  45° 00′

2431′

2431′

1007′

2431.0331

0.70710681  0.70710678  
13  48° 45′

2585′

2585′

1171′

2584.8253

0.75183985  0.75183981  
14  52° 30′

2728′

2728′

1345′

2727.5488

0.79335331  0.79335334  
15  56° 15′

2859′

2859′

1528′

2858.5925

0.83146960  0.83146961  
16  60° 00′

2978′

2978′

1719′

2977.3953

0.86602543  0.86602540  
17  63° 45′

3084′

3084′

1918′

3083.4485

0.89687275  0.89687274  
18  67° 30′

3177′

3177′

2123′

3176.2978

0.92387954  0.92387953  
19  71° 15′

3256′

3256′

2333′

3255.5458

0.94693016  0.94693013  
20  75° 00′

3321′

3321′

2548′

3320.8530

0.96592581  0.96592583  
21  78° 45′

3372′

3372′

2767′

3371.9398

0.98078527  0.98078528  
22  82° 30′

3409′

3409′

2989′

3408.5874

0.99144487  0.99144486  
23  86° 15′

3431′

3431′

3213′

3430.6390

0.99785895  0.99785892  
24  90° 00′

3438′

3438′

3438′

3438.0000

0.99999997  1.00000000 
See also[edit]
References[edit]
 ↑ Takao Hayashi, T (November 1997). "Āryabhaṭa's rule and table for sinedifferences". Historia Mathematica. 24 (4): 396–406. doi:10.1006/hmat.1997.2160.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
 ↑ B. L. van der Waerden, B. L. (March 1988). "Reconstruction of a Greek table of chords". Archive for History of Exact Sciences. 38 (1): 23–38. doi:10.1007/BF00329978.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
 ↑ J J O'Connor and E F Robertson (June 1996). "The trigonometric functions". Retrieved 4 March 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
 ↑ ^{4.0} ^{4.1} ^{4.2} ^{4.3} ^{4.4} ^{4.5} ^{4.6} B.B. Datta and A.N. Singh (1983). "Hindu Trigonometry" (PDF). Indian Journal of History of Science. 18 (1): 39–108. Retrieved 1 March 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
 ↑ According to lexicographers, it is a synonym also meaning "bowstring", but only its geometrical meaning is attested in literature. MonierWilliams, A Sanskrit Dictionary (1899): " jīvá n. (in geom. = jyā) the chord of an arc; the sine of an arc Suryasiddhanta 2.57"; jīvá as a generic adjective has the meaning of "living, alive" (cognate with English quick)
 ↑ ^{6.0} ^{6.1} Glen Van Brummelen (2009). The mathematics of the heavens and the earth : the early history of trigonometry. Princeton University Press. pp. 95–97. ISBN 9780691129730.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
 ↑ "How the Trig Functions Got their Names". Ask Dr. Math. Drexel University. Retrieved 2 March 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
 ↑ J J O'Connor and E F Robertson (June 1996). "The trigonometric functions". Retrieved 2 March 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
 ↑ Various sources credit the first use of sinus to either:
 Plato Tiburtinus's 1116 translation of the Astronomy of AlBattani
 Gerard of Cremona's c. 1150 translation of the Algebra of alKhwārizmī
 Robert of Chester's 1145 translation of the tables of alKhwārizmī
See Maor (1998), chapter 3, for an earlier etymology crediting Gerard.
See Katx, Victor (July 2008). A history of mathematics (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson. p. 210 (sidebar). ISBN 9780321387004.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>  ↑ Deva Shastri, Pundit Bapu (1861). Translation of the Surya Siddhanta. pp. 15–16.
 ↑ Deva Shastri, Pundit Bapu (1861). Translation of the Surya Siddhanta. pp. 16.
 ↑ Deva Shastri, Pundit Bapu (1861). Translation of the Surya Siddhanta. pp. 16.
 ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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