Grooming Jihad

From Dharmapedia Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Love Jihad, also called Grooming Jihad, is an activity under which young Muslim boys and men target young girls belonging to non-Muslim communities for conversion to Islam by feigning love.[1][2][3]

The concept first rose to national attention in India in 2009, with claims of widespread conversions in Kerala and Mangalore, but claims have subsequently spread throughout India and beyond, into Pakistan and the United Kingdom. With waves of publicity in 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2014, the allegations of Love Jihad in India have raised concerns in various Hindu, Sikh and Christian organizations, while Muslim organisations have denied the allegations. The concept has remained a source of political contention and social concern for many, although as of 2014 the idea of an organized Love Jihad was still widely downplayed as an alleged conspiracy theory by the Indian mainstream, and international mainstream media.[4]

Similar patterns have happened in other cultures, such as the famous Rotherham incidents. See Easy Meat, Inside Britain’s Grooming Gang Scandal.

Background[edit]

File:India religion map 1909 en.jpg
India has been religiously pluralistic for centuries. This map from 1909 shows Muslim regions in the northwest in green mixing with Hindu regions stretching across most of the region into Buddhist Burma.

Religious conversion through emotional appeal[edit]

The Oxford Handbook of Religious Conversion notes that the effectiveness of emotional appeals in converting people from one faith to another is well known and often exploited by religious leaders.[5] Religious groups have utilized techniques like love bombing and Flirty Fishing to interest potential recruits.[5] Love Jihad is an alleged activity wherein Muslim youth utilize such emotional appeals, using charm to entice girls into conversion by feigning love – in some reports, as an organized, funded behavior.[3][6][7]

Regional historical tensions[edit]

In a piece picked up by the Chicago Tribune, Foreign Policy correspondent Siddhartha Mahanta reports that the modern Love Jihad conspiracy has roots in the 1947 partition of India.[8] This partition led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan (it later split into the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh) and the Union of India (later Republic of India). The creation of two countries with different majority religions led to large-scale migration, with millions of people moving between the countries and rampant reports of sexual predation and forced conversions of women by men of both faiths.[8][9][10] Women on both sides of the conflict were impacted, leading to "recovery operations" by both the Indian and Pakistani governments of these women, with over 20,000 Muslim and 9,000 non-Muslim women being recovered between 1947 and 1956.[10] This tense history caused repeated clashes between the faiths in the decades that followed as well, according to Mahanta, as cultural pressure against interfaith marriage for either side.[8]

As of 2014, Hindus were the leading religious majority in India, at 81%, with Muslims at 13%.[11]

Marriage traditions and customs[edit]

India has a long tradition of arranged marriages, wherein the bride and groom do not self-select their partners; one 2000 book reported that 90% of marriages in India at the time had been arranged, mostly within caste.[12] Through the 2000s and 2010s, India witnessed a rise in love marriages, although tensions continue around interfaith marriages, along with other traditionally discouraged unions.[13][14] In 2012, The Hindu reported that illegal intimidation against consenting couples engaging in such discouraged unions, including inter-religious marriage, had surged.[15] That year, Uttar Pradesh saw the proposal of an amendment to remove the requirement to declare religion from the marriage law in hopes of encouraging those who were hiding their interfaith marriage due to social norms to register.[13]

One of the tensions surrounding interfaith marriage relates to concerns of required, even forced, marital conversion.[14][16] Marriage in Islam is a legal contract with requirements around the religions of the participants. While Muslim women are only permitted within the contract to marry Muslim men, Muslim men may marry "People of the Book", interpreted by most to include Jews and Christians, with the inclusion of Hindus disputed.[17] According to a 2014 article in the Mumbai Mirror, some non-Muslim brides in Muslim-Hindu marriages convert, while other couples choose a civil marriage under the Special Marriage Act of 1954.[14]

Scope and history[edit]

Allegations of Love Jihad first rose to national awareness in September 2009.[6][18] Love Jihad was initially alleged to be conducted in Kerala and Mangalore in the coastal Karnataka region. According to the Kerala Catholic Bishops Council, by October 2009 up to 4,500 girls in Kerala had been targeted, whereas Hindu Janajagruti Samiti claimed that 30,000 girls had been converted in Karnataka alone.[19][20][21] Alleged incidents spread. Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana general secretary Vellapally Natesan said that there had been reports in Narayaneeya communities of "Love Jihad" attempts.[22][23] Reports of similar activities have also emerged from Pakistan and the United Kingdom.[24][25][26] According to an opinion piece by Liberal Politics blogger Sunny Hundal, "In the 90s, an anonymous leaflet (suspected to be by Hizb ut-Tahrir followers) urged Muslim men to seduce Sikh girls to convert them to Islam."[27]

In 2014, reports have originated from diverse regions, including Bihar,[28] Kanpur,[29] Gwalior,[30] and England.[31]

The Sikh Council received reports in 2014 that girls from British Sikh families were becoming victims of Love Jihad. Furthermore, these reports stated that these girls were being exploited by their husbands, some of whom afterwards abandoned them in Pakistan. According to the Takht jathedar, "The Sikh council has rescued some of the victims (girls) and brought them back to their parents."[31]

The fundamentalist Muslim organization Popular Front of India and the Campus Front have been accused of promoting this activity.[7][32] In Kerala, some movies have been accused of promoting Love Jihad, a charge which has been denied by the filmmakers.[33]

Following the controversy's initial flare-up in 2009, it flared again in 2010, 2011 and 2014.[34][35][36] On 25 June 2014, Kerala Chief Minister Oommen Chandy informed the state legislature that 2667 young women were converted to Islam in the state since 2006. However, he stated that there was no evidence for any of them being forced conversions, and that fears of Love Jihad were "baseless."[36] In connection with an alleged case in Delhi, India TV indicated in September 2014 that the number of cases of reported Love Jihad were rapidly increasing admidst "intense debates" over relationships between Muslim boys and Hindu girls.[37]

India's National shooter Tara Shahdeo in 2014 alleged her husband forced her to convert to Islam and that she was tortured upon her refusal to convert. Her husband was later arrested.[38]

India's National shooter Tara Shahdeo in 2014 accused her husband of lying, domestic violence and forcing her to convert to Islam. Her husband was later arrested.[38] A family court in June 2018 granted the shooter divorce from Raqibul alias Ranjit Kohli on the sections pertaining to marrying on giving false information and inflicting cruelty.[39]

One Indian Taekwondo player in 2014 claimed that she was a "victim" of Love Jihad while she was still a minor. Her husband was later arrested for kidnapping and compelling the minor for marriage.[40]

There is a perception that only poor and ordinary Hindu girls are the target of Love jihad by 'desi' Muslims. The 'spy IFS officer' , Madhuri Guptha claims she was treated like a 'dog' by her 'Pakistani Jihadi Romeo' bears striking similarity to the status of poor, innocent, Hindu love jihad victims.[41]http://www.hindujagruti.org/news/9832.html<>

The practice is said to be popular on college campuses, and it was on one such that in early September 2009 two girls—one Hindu and one Christian—indicated that they had been forced to convert by two Muslim youths.[42] The young men, both of whom were members of the Muslim Popular Front of India's student organisation Campus Front were subsequently arrested and held without bail.[42] Other women have reported similar situations.[43] According to press reports, the purpose of the activity is to force girls to produce children for Islam.[44]

In 2012, a group calling itself Real Khilafah Movement issued leaflets that called on Muslim men to seduce Sikh and Hindu girls in order to convert them to Islam. The leaflets were distributed at several locations including the Luton railway station (UK)[45].

Officials in India took concerns seriously and investigations were launched in 2009 in Kerala and Karnataka, but no organised activity of the sort has been confirmed in those investigations.[46][47][48] In January 2012, Kerala police declared that Love Jihad was "[a] campaign with no substance", bringing legal proceedings instead against the website hindujagruti.org for "spreading religious hatred and false propaganda."[49] The controversial issue was able to garner international attention.[50][51]

In a cable leaked by Wikileaks, it was claimed that soon after the Karnataka High Court issued a directive to initiate a probe into the matter of 'Love Jihad', Indian Christian Leaders, including 'Kerala Catholic Bishops Council', were "convinced" that Love Jihad is "an alleged Islamist plot to increase the share of Muslims in the population by incentivizing Muslim men to marry outside the community". Chennai Consul General lent credence to these claims and held meetings with the Christian leaders to find more about the matter.[52]

India's National shooter Tara Shahdeo in 2014 alleged her husband forced her to convert to Islam and that she was tortured upon her refusal to convert. Her husband was later arrested.[38]

According to Father Johny Kochuparambil, nearly 4000 girls were converted to Islam between 2005-2009, after falling in love with Muslim youth, with further allegations of Muslim organisations receiving foreign funding from the Middle East to engage in Love Jihad. For the first time in Indian history, Christians joined hardline Hindu organisations, to face the threat of Love Jihad, with the Christian Association for Social Action (CASA) co-operating with the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP).[53]

In 2016 The Vigilance and Anti-corruption Bureau of Kerala is mulling bringing religious conversions, involving financial benefits, under its scanner.[54]

The VACB director's statement on religious conversions assumes significance in the wake of a recent police intelligence report that nearly 5,700 persons had been converted to Islam between 2011–2015 across Kerala.The report, compiled by the state intelligence and submitted to the state Director General of Police seven months ago, had stated that out of the total 5,793 converted, 2,729 were women.Of the total number of persons converted, 4,719 were Hindus and 1,704 were Christians, it said.

As per the report, 1,074 people were converted to Islam in 2011, 1,117 (2012), 1,137 (2013), 1,256 (2014) and 1,209 (till October, 2015).

There were media reports that money was allegedly involved in such religious conversions.

UK[edit]

See Easy Meat, Inside Britain’s Grooming Gang Scandal

A BBC Inside Out (London) programme televised in September 2013 interviewed several young Sikh women who were allegedly groomed and sexually abused by Muslim men, with one alleged ex-groomer even admitting that they specifically targeted Sikh girls. Bhai Mohan Singh, working for the Sikh Awareness Society (SAS), told the BBC he was investigating 19 cases where Sikh girls were allegedly being groomed by older Muslim men,[55] of which one ended with a successful conviction.[56][57] In August 2013 four Muslims were convicted at Leicester Crown Court of paying a "vulnerable and damaged" 16-year-old Sikh girl for sex:[58] the investigation which had led to their being arrested and charged had been opened due to evidence Bhai Mohan Singh had presented to the police.[57]

In September 2013, a BBC Inside Out investigation uncovered that British Sikh girls were being preyed upon by Muslim men who subjected them to sexual abuse. In the documentary, the reporter meets a 16-year-old British Sikh girl who says she was groomed and sexually abused by Muslim men over a period of time.[59] Another investigation by Inside Out London proved the same.[60]

This practice is known since 2010 as localised grooming by the UK Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre and is a type of child grooming. Several court cases since 2000 have worried authorities in the UK.[61]

In the Netherlands, this practice was seen as early as 2001, where the perpetrators are known derogatorily as lover boys. The lover boys gradually lure their targets into prostitution:[62]

... “ordinary” Dutch schoolgirls, aged 13 or 14 [and] from a “regular home environment”, ... are lured into prostitution by so-called “lover-boys”... handsome-looking [male] adolescents who appear to have made it in life. They’re well-dressed, drive expensive cars and lavish presents on these young and susceptible girls, who will quickly fall in love with them. “Of course, they’ll have sex and after a while the girl will be forced to have sex with one of his friends, which will open the way for prostitution.”

In the UK as well there were concerns regarding Muslims trying to poach vulnerable women from other religions. There has been a very controversial leaflet that was circulated which was expressed in the report by Clive Gresswell "Call To Muslims To Seduce Sikh Girls Into Islam". These acts have been highly condemned by the Sikh Community in the UK, though no evidence exists to suggest any of these reports are true.[63] This has also led to the Sikh community extending support to the English Defence League.

In a 2008 journal for the University of Leeds, for the Centre for Ethnicity & Racism Studies (as well as the School of Sociology and Social Policy; University of Leeds), conducted a thorough investigation into the Sikh community in the UK where the idea of "trapped love" is incredibly widespread. The report was done to see whether the phenomenon and allegations of "forced" conversions and "trapped love" was true; the report concluded most of the claimed evidence alleged by the Sikh community against Muslims came from "a friend from a friend" within Sikh families who detailed many exaggerated stories about the "Muslim folk devil" on campus, at Universities. Most alarmingly researcher Katy Sian noted strong similarities to the notion of "trapped love" allegedly conducted by the Jewish community in the UK in the 1930s and 1940s where it has since been labelled as an antisemitic conspiracy theory. The report concluded by saying most of evidence simply does not exist and is part of a wider problem of Islamophobia amongst Sikhs:[63][64]

This narrative first emerged in late 1980s and early 1990s and has been reproduced to establish the threat of the Muslim ‘other’. Such a discourse remains fixed within the Sikh social fabric as the tale continues to circulate within the collective despite a lack of evidence to support such claims [...]This story is all too familiar within the Sikh community, such a narrative has been persistently reproduced to warn ‘vulnerable’ Sikh ‘girls’ about the ‘dangers’ of ‘predatory’ Muslim men, a tale which has become so deeply embedded within the Sikh imagination, a myth which continues to resurface within the public eye, readily consumed by the diaspora [...] These ‘forced’ conversion narratives seem to echo the ‘white slavery’ scares and the role they played in articulating and representing Anti-Semitism. The focus in the ‘forced’ conversion narratives on the ‘predatory’ Muslim males allows these stories to be inserted as a Sikh chapter in the development of current Islamophobia.[63]

An academic paper by Katy Sian published in the journal South Asian Popular Culture in 2011 explored the question of how "'forced' conversion narratives" arose around the Sikh diaspora in the United Kingdom.[65] Sian, who reports that claims of conversion through courtship on campuses are widespread in the UK, indicates that rather than relying on actual evidence they primarily rest on the word of "a friend of a friend" or on personal anecdote, without the slightest evidence backed up by scientific findings. According to Sian, the narrative is similar to accusations of "white slavery" lodged against the Jewish community and foreigners to the UK and the US, with the former having ties to anti-semitism that mirror the Islamophobia betrayed by the modern narrative. Sian expanded on these views in 2013's Mistaken Identities, Forced Conversions, and Postcolonial Formations.[64]

Similar activities have been reported in places like United Kingdom and the Netherlands.[66] Official investigations in India have found no truth behind the allegations.


This practice is known since 2010 as localised grooming by the UK Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre and is a type of child grooming. The Rotherham sex grooming case saw in November 2010 various convictions of child sexual abusers.[67] That the modus operandi clearly fits love jihad is apparent from this newspaper passage:

The court was told Khan was a mortgage adviser who owned a BMW car. In his own words he described his victim as a "little stick" who looked like she hadn't reached puberty. Despite this he told her he loved her and would spoil her like a "princess". The judge told him: "It is clear she was a child and you knew it and you took advantage of it with your flattery."

In the Netherlands, this practice was seen as early as 2001, where the perpetrators are known derogatorily as lover boys. The lover boys gradually lure their targets into prostitution:[68]

... “ordinary” Dutch schoolgirls, aged 13 or 14 [and] from a “regular home environment”, ... are lured into prostitution by so-called “lover-boys”... handsome-looking [male] adolescents who appear to have made it in life. They’re well-dressed, drive expensive cars and lavish presents on these young and susceptible girls, who will quickly fall in love with them. “Of course, they’ll have sex and after a while the girl will be forced to have sex with one of his friends, which will open the way for prostitution.”


A similar practice is known since 2010 as localised grooming by the UK Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre, although localised grooming may or may not include a religious component. It is a type of child grooming. The Daily Telegraph reported in 2001 that:[69]

A Muslim group calling itself Real Khilafa has been trying to whip up trouble by distributing a letter encouraging young Muslims to take out Sikh girls to get them drunk and convert them to Islam. The letter has incensed the considerable Sikh community...

On 18 September 2005 a documentary was broadcast on BBC Radio 5 Live about the way in which "children are 'groomed' into believing that ... 'pimps' are in fact their boyfriends".[70] A journalist named Sunny Hundal commented that the documentary "also asks why 'so many of the men implicated in these crimes are British Pakistanis'".[70] Given that adherents of Islam make up more than 97% of Pakistanis,[71] there may well be a quasi-religious aspect to this problem.

Andrew Norfolk, winner of the 2013 Orwell Prize for Journalism,[72] reported of Rotherham in September 2012 that a "common pattern was that the men turning the abuse of young teenage girls into a collective activity were predominantly from a small sub-section of British Pakistani society." Norfolk also reported two more nationalities were prevalent amongst the predators but detailed statistics on demography are unavailable for these groups.[73]

There are many recents events accused to be part of Love Jihad in north India [74] In a latest event believed to be a case of Love Jihad, well known woman shooter Tara Shahdeo was forced to convert to Islam [75]

There has been multiple reports of Love Jihad. National Rifle sportswoman, Tara Sahdev from Ranchi accused her husband of torturing her to become Muslim[76][77] Another example is the Meerut Gang rape case in Uttar Pradesh.[78]

Community responses[edit]

2009[edit]

Various organisations have joined together against this perceived conduct. Christian groups, such as the Christian Association for Social Action, and the Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP) banded against it, with the VHP establishing the Hindu Helpline that it indicates answered 1,500 calls in three months related to "Love Jihad".[3] The Union of Catholic Asian News (UCAN) has reported that the Catholic Church is concerned about this alleged phenomenon.[42] The Vigilance Council of the Kerala Catholic Bishops' Council (KCBC) raised an alert for the Catholic community against the practice.[19] In September, posters appeared in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala under the name of right-wing group Shri Ram Sena warning against "Love Jihad".[79] The group announced in December that it would launch a nationwide "Save our daughters, save India" campaign to combat "Love Jihad".[80]

Muslim organizations in Kerala called it a malicious misinformation campaign.[81] Popular Front of India (PFI) committee-member Naseeruddin Elamaram denied that the PFI was involved in any "Love Jihad", stating that people convert to Hinduism and Christianity as well and that religious conversion is not a crime.[42] Members of the Muslim Central Committee of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts have responded by claiming that Hindus and Christians have fabricated these claims to undermine the Muslim faith and community.[82]

2010[edit]

In July 2010, the "Love Jihad" controversy resurfaced in the press when Kerala Chief Minister V. S. Achuthanandan referenced the alleged matrimonial conversion of non-Muslim girls as part of an effort to make Kerala a Muslim majority state.[34][83] PFI dismissed his statements due to the findings of the Kerala probe,[83] but the president of the BJP Mahila Morcha, the women's wing of the conservative Bharatiya Janata Party, called for an NIA investigation, alleging that the Kerala state probe was closed prematurely due to a tacit understanding with PFI.[84] The Congress Party in Kerala responded strongly to the Chief Minister's comments, which they described as deplorable and dangerous.[34]

Former Kerala Chief Minister V. S. Achuthanandan referenced the alleged matrimonial conversion of non-Muslim girls as part of an effort "to make Kerala a Muslim majority state".[34][83].The activity of luring hindu women has been reported many a times throughout the country causing widespread communal riots.[85][86][87][88][89]There has been even reports of this activity in Pakistan[90][91],Bangladesh[92][93] and United Kingdom[94].

2011[edit]

In December 2011, the controversy erupted again in Karnataka legislative assembly, when member Mallika Prasad of the Bharatiya Janata Party asserted that the problem was ongoing and unaddressed — with, according to her, 69 of 84 Hindu girls who had gone missing between January and November of that year confessing after their recovery that "they'd been lured by Muslim youths who professed love."[35] According to The Times of India, response was divided, with Deputy Speaker N. Yogish Bhat and House Leader S. Suresh Kumar supporting governmental intervention, while Congress members B. Ramanath Rai and Abhay Chandra Jain argued that "the issue was being raised to disrupt communal harmony in the district."[35]

That same month, the alleged phenomenon was raised by Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh leader during a protest organized by Hindu Hitarakshana Vedike about the arrest and reported mistreatment of 15 people on an unrelated matter, when Sangh suggested that police feared to interfere with Muslim youth who practice "Love Jihad" and cautioned young Hindu women against using cell phones, suggesting these play a major role.[95] It was also raised by filmmaker Paromita Vohra, who labeled the phenemonen as VHP conspiracy theories.[96]

2012[edit]

On 25 June 2012, Oommen Chandy, then chief minister of Kerala, tabled some numbers in the state Legislature:[97]

2014[edit]

During the resurgence of the controversy in 2014, protests turned violent at growing concern, even though, according to Reuters, the concept was considered "an absurd conspiracy theory by mainstream, moderate Indians."[4] BJP MP Yogi Adityanath alleged that Love Jihad was an international conspiracy targeting India,[98] announcing on television that the Muslims "can't do what they want by force in India, so they are using the love jihad method here."[11] Conservative Hindu activists have cautioned women in Uttar Pradesh to avoid Muslims and not to befriend them.[11] In Uttar Pradesh, the influential committee Akhil Bharitiya Vaishya Ekta Parishad announced their intention to push to restrict the use of cell phones among young women to prevent their being vulnerable to such activities.[99]

Following this announcement, Times of India reported, Senior Superintendent of Police Shalabh Mathur "said the term 'love jihad' had been coined only to create fear and divide society along communal lines."[99] Muslim leaders have referred to 2014 rhetoric around the alleged conspiracy as a campaign of hate.[11] Feminists voiced concerns that efforts to protect women against the alleged activities would negatively impact women's rights, depriving them of free choice and agency.[14][100][101][102]

Uma Bharti, water resources minister and a leader of the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party, called for communal discussions between leaders of the communities to protect young men and women regardless of religion.[103]

In September 2014, controversial BJP MP Sakshi Maharaj claimed that Muslim boys in madrasas are being motivated for Love Jihad with proposals of rewards of, "Rs 11 lakh for an “affair” with a Sikh girl, Rs 10 lakh for a Hindu girl and Rs 7 lakh for a Jain girl." He claimed to know this through reports to him by Muslims and by the experiences of men in his service who had converted for access.[104] Abdul Razzaq Khan, the vice-president of Jamiat Ulama Hind, responded by denying such activities, labeling the comments "part of conspiracy aimed at disturbing the peace of the nation" and demanding action against Maharaj.[105] Uttar Pradesh minister Mohd Azam Khan indicated the statement was "trying to break the country".[106]

On 13 October, India Today reported that the woman who claimed in Love-Jihad case that she had been gang-raped and forcefully converted into Islam, changed her statement and said to the Police that she had in fact eloped with the accused. She said that she had given a wrong statement previously as she was threatened by her parents.[107]

2015[edit]

On January, Vishwa Hindu Parishad 's women’s wing, Durga Vahini used actor Kareena Kapoor’s morphed picture half covered with burqa issue of their magazine, on the theme of Love Jihaad.[108] The caption underneath read: "conversion of nationality through religious conversion".[109]

Official investigations[edit]

In October 2009, the Karnataka government announced its intentions to counter "Love Jihad", which "appeared to be a serious issue".[110] A week after the announcement, the government ordered a probe into the situation by the CID to determine if an organised effort existed to convert these girls and, if so, by whom it was being funded.[111] One woman whose conversion to Islam came under scrutiny as a result of the probe was temporarily ordered to the custody of her parents, but eventually permitted to return to her new husband after she appeared in court, denying pressure to convert.[112][113] In April 2010, police used the term to characterize the alleged kidnapping, forced conversion and marriage of a 17-year-old college girl in Mysore.[114]

Following the launching of a poster campaign in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, purportedly by organisation Shri Ram Sena, state police began investigating the presence of that organisation in the area.[79] In late October 2009, police addressed the question of "Love Jihad" itself, indicating that while they had not located an organisation called "Love Jihad", "there are reasons to suspect ‘concentrated attempts’ to persuade girls to convert to Islam after they fall in love with Muslim boys".[115][116] They documented unconfirmed reports of a foreign-funded network of groups encouraging conversion through the subterfuge, but noted that no organisations conducting such campaigns had been confirmed and no evidence had been located to support foreign financial aid.[46]

In late 2009, The Karnataka CID (Criminal Investigation Department) reported that although it was continuing to investigate, it had found no evidence that a "Love Jihad" existed.[47] In late 2009, Director-General of Police Jacob Punnoose reported that although the investigation would continue, there was no evidence of any organised attempt by any group or individual using men "feigning love" to lure women to convert to Islam.[47][117] They did indicate that a large number of Hindu girls had converted to Islam of their own will.[48]

On 9 December 2009, Justice K T Sankaran for the Kerala High Court weighed in on the matter while hearing bail for Muslim youth arrested for allegedly forcibly converting two campus girls. According to Sankaran, police reports revealed the "blessings of some outfits" for a "concerted" effort for religious conversions, some 3,000 to 4,000 incidences of which had taken place after love affairs in a four-year period.[118] Sankaran "found indications of ‘forceful’ religious conversions under the garb of ‘love’", suggesting that "such ‘deceptive’ acts" might require legislative intervention to prevent.[118]

According to The Indian Express, Sankaran's conclusion that "such incidents under the pretext of love were rampant in certain parts of the state" ran contrary to Central and state government reports.[119] In early 2010, the State Government reported to the Karnataka High Court that although a large number of young Hindu women had converted to Islam, there was no organized attempt to convince them to do so.[48] A petition was also put before Sankaran to prevent the use of the terms "Love Jehad" and "Romeo Jehad", but Sankaran declined to overrule an earlier decision not to restrain media usage.[119] Subsequently, however, the High Court stayed further police investigation, both because no organised efforts had been disclosed by police probes and because the investigation was specifically targeted against a single community.[49][120]

In January 2012, Kerala police declared that Love Jihad was "[a] campaign with no substance", bringing legal proceedings instead against the website hindujagruti.org for "spreading religious hatred and false propaganda.".[49]

In September 2014, following the resurgence of national attention,[36] Reuters reported that police in Uttar Pradesh had found no credence in the five or six recent allegations of Love Jihad that had been brought before them, with state police chief A.L. Banerjee stating that, "In most cases we found that a Hindu girl and Muslim boy were in love and had married against their parents' will."[4] They reportedly indicated that "sporadic cases of trickery by unscrupulous men are not evidence of a broader conspiracy."[4]

That same month, the Allahabad High Court gave the government and election commission of Uttar Pradesh 10 days to respond to a petition to restrain the use of the word "Love Jihad" and to take action against Adityanath.[8][98][121]

Love Jihad in the UK[edit]

In the United Kingdom, the Daily Telegraph reported in 2001 that "A Muslim group calling itself Real Khilafa has been trying to whip up trouble by distributing a letter encouraging young Muslims to take out Sikh girls to get them drunk and convert them to Islam."[69] They indicated that the letter was causing anger in the Sikh community. [69]

Wikipedia[edit]

Wikipedia called the claims "Hindu hysteria" and "Sikh hysteria". [6]

Wikipedia also called the claims "porno-nationalism" [7].

  • Anti-Hindu admin Newslinger tried to label it as a conspiracy theory on the pov-ridden Wikipedia:Fringe theories/Noticeboard. [8].

See also[edit]

  • In that story, the Labour MP for Keighley, Ann Cryer is quoted as saying “I believe there is a very strong cultural reason, it’s nothing to do with the religion lets [sic] make it quite clear, its [sic] to do with the Asian culture, which wants these young men to marry these very young girls from their village...” Cryer said that it is because they do not want arranged marriages with “very young girls from their village” in Pakistan that Muslim men “look for very young girls through this organised sex ring that we are seeing in Keighley.” She does not explain what part of “Asian culture” would lead the parents to want their sons to marry “very young girls” from Pakistan, nor why this should lead to “organised” rings of men who seek to exploit “very young”, non-Muslim girls near Bradford, and get them addicted to drugs and alcohol and then turn them into prostitutes. Ann Cryer left it up to the population of Britain to assume that Hindu and Sikh and Buddhist men were also doing this, as these activities were supposedly part of “Asian culture”, rather than men from one specific religious group.
    • Easy Meat, Inside Britain’s Grooming Gang Scandal

Strategy used by Love Jihadi youths in India[edit]

Several independent research groups have conducted a study to unearth how Indian Hindu women are being lured successfully by conversion fetishes and the link between Islamic organizations and Bollywood. A detailed research study was submitted to Government of India for further action. An overview of complete list of tricks/tactics used by conversion fetishes taken from the research papers are highlighted below in sequence along with relation to other factors specific to India used in propagating the deceitful act.

This conspiracy is found to be highly organized in nature and targeted the very vulnerable links in Hindu society effectively.

1. Islamic conversion fetishes targeted Hindu women by befriending them. Many of the victims awere found to be independent working class women and students. Modern working Hindu women were found to be Love Jihadi youths prime target.

2. One of the method used to gain trust was by making a victim believe the conversion fetish by talking to her regularly and by conducting secret calls to woo them.

3. Most of these activities were carried out clandestinely to hide from Men of other faiths. Many a times even the female friend of the Hindu woman were kept in darkness to avoid the expose of deceit.

4. Victims have revealed that they were made to convince by faking a colorful married life. (Taqiya) – Gaining the trust of someone by deceiving tactics is easier than being truthful.

5. Most common pickup lines used by Islamic conversion fetishes on a Hindu woman in Indian subcontinent are You look more like a Muslim. You don’t look like a Hindu,Will you be a Muslim? to make a psychological attack on her thinking process.

6. The easiest tactic used by these men was to rake up feminism, equality, and independence issues. Except few women, many could not even realize the real motive. Establishing a physical relationship with Hindu woman was found to be their priority to create bonding.

7. Physical relationship was found to be the prime reason why many women have eloped even after getting married to a Hindu man and in each instances Jihadis have ensured to break her home until she got converted and eloped with them.

8. Studies have revealed that deceitful Islamic youths often identified themselves as ATHEIST and non-practicing Muslim in social circles and in front of targeted Hindu women till they became successful in carrying out their propaganda of conversion and making their kids as Muslims.

9. Indian Special Marriage Act of 1954 was used conveniently to marry the girl before bringing the matter to public or her family.

10. Women were Converted after the marriage. Since, at this stage, the girl has no choice but to convert.

11. In every instances, Kids born were always forced to follow Islam and a generation of Hindu was terminated very successfully.

12. Muslim dominated Bollywood was found to be the influencer of this act by propagating the trend by showing Hindu women as Muslims girlfriend and wife in almost every Bollywood movies.

13. Muslim Bollywood celebrities influence Islamic conversion by marrying many different Hindu women in their lifetime and yet children born were always made to follow Islam. Celebrities were found announcing publicly that their kids will always follow Islam.

How Hindu men were misled[edit]

A pattern of abuse and bodily harm of Hindu youth was found in each instances where Hindu man was in love with Muslim woman. Powerful network of religious groups have worked in tandem to mislead and end the love affair.

1. Coreligionists were instructed to share the instances of when Muslim girls were in relationship with Hindu boys.

2. On a perfect day, non-muslim men were beaten up or many a times killed to generate fear.

3. This ancient strategy was found to be used in many countries especially in south-east asia.

4. Hindu man was left with beatings and many a times got murdered.

5. Men were made to suffer a huge blow to their confidence.

This tactic effectively reduced the number of non-muslim men going for a relationship with Muslim women.

How to spot a Love Jihadi?[edit]

How can a Hindu woman identify a conversion fetish quickly and how to get rid of the situation? Many Hindu women have shared their experience of how conversion fetishes have approached them to try their luck. They have approached by various means. Most common of them are co- workers in their field of work and study mates.

Easy way to identify a Love Jihadi is by confronting them with their own agenda. It is suggested that instead of giving several reasons like family won’t agree, mom won’t agree and dad won’t agree etc., just tell the deceiver, “I am HINDU and I respect and believe in my faith” and direct him to accept Hinduism legally and personally to become one among family before proceeding further". This situation is the only chance for woman to control the matter before ending up becoming a victim. It was observed, by successful confrontation many Hindu women have realized Islamic conversion fetishes secret motto. If left, Jihadis were found making a woman emotional by showing their sly good behavior until they agree and convert submissively. Those who were part of this deceitful propaganda were heard saying ‘reverted’ or ‘revert to Islam’ at many occasions. They were told to use revert instead of convert in religious gatherings.

One most important tactic found was, conversion fetishes have always tried their best to keep the matter from reaching victims family and friends before her marriage and conversion.

In another love jihad case, a Hindu woman who married a muslim man was forcibly converted to Islam and made to travel to Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, from where she escaped while her captors were attempting to take her to Syria.[122]


The National Investigation Agency (NIA), which examined so-called cases of “love jihad” after the Supreme Court ordered it to, in connection with the case of Hadiya, found that four of the eleven cases it investigated, involved Hindu men converting to Islam or being convinced to convert to Islam in order to marry Muslim women.[123] In another love jihad case, a Hindu woman who married a muslim man was forcibly converted to Islam and made to travel to Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, from where she escaped while her captors were attempting to take her to Syria.[124]

On July 14, 2018, India Today reported a case of killing of a girl in an alleged Love Jihad case.[125] While in an another case Jansatta reported where a girl was exploited sexually and pressurized for religious conversion.[126]

There are enough official evidence supporting these claims.[127][3] [128]T

The Government of India has banned triple talaaq in India to avoid Muslim men from abusing it and giving their wives, irrespective of the wife's religion, instant divorce – it is being seen as a mechanism to avoid Muslim men from abusing it for "love jihad".[129]

In November 2009, DGP Jacob Punnoose stated there was no organisation whose members lured girls in Kerala by feigning love with the intention of converting. He told the Kerala High Court that 3 out of 18 reports he received expressed some doubts about the tendency. However, in absence of solid proof the investigations were still continuing.[117] In December 2009, Justice K.T. Sankaran who refused to accept Punnoose's report concluded from a case diary that there were indications of forceful conversions and stated it was clear from police reports there was a "concerted effort" to convert women with "blessings of some outfits". The court while hearing bail plea of two accused in "love jihad" cases stated that there had been 3,000-4,000 such conversions in past four years.[118] The Kerala High Court in December 2009 stayed investigations in the case, granting relief to the two accused though it criticised police investigations.[130] The investigation was closed by Justice M. Sasidharan Nambiar following Punnoose's statements that no conclusive evidence could be found for existence of "love jihad".[49]

The Karnataka government stated in 2010 that although many women had converted to Islam, there was no organized attempt to convince them to do so.[48] In 2012, after two years of investigation into the alleged love jihad, Kerala Police declared it as a "campaign with no substance". Subsequently, a case was initiated against the website where fake posters of Muslim organisations offering money to Muslim youths for luring and trapping women were found.[49] Uttar Pradesh Police in September 2014 found no evidence of attempted or forced conversion in five of six reported cases of love jihad reported to them in past three months. Police said sporadic cases of trickery by unscrupulous men are not evidence of a broader conspiracy.[4]

In 2017, after the Kerala High Court ruled that a marriage of a Hindu woman to a Muslim man was invalid on the basis of love jihad, and an appeal was filed in the Supreme Court of India by the Muslim husband where court, based on the "unbiased and independent" evidence requested by the court from NIA, instructed NIA to investigate all similar cases for establishing the pattern of love jihad. It allowed NIA to explore all similar suspicious incidences to find whether banned organisations, such as SIMI, are preying on vulnerable Hindu women to recruit them as terrorists.[131][132][133][134] NIA had earlier submitted before the court that the case was not an "isolated" incident and it had detected a pattern emerging in the state, stating that another case involved the same people who acted as instigators.[135]

The concept first rose to national attention in India in 2009, with claims of widespread conversions in Kerala and Karnataka, but claims have subsequently spread throughout India and beyond, into Pakistan and the United Kingdom. With waves of publicity in 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2014, the allegations of Love Jihad in India have raised concerns in various Hindu, Sikh and Christian organizations, while Muslim organisations have denied the allegations. The concept has remained a source of political contention and social concern for many, although as of 2014 the idea of an organized Love Jihad was still widely regarded as a conspiracy theory by the Indian mainstream, according to Reuters.[4]

In August 2017, the National Investigation Agency (NIA) stated that it had found a common mentor in some love jihad cases in August 2017.[136] According to a later article in The Economist, "Repeated police investigations have failed to find evidence of any organised plan of conversion. Reporters have repeatedly exposed claims of "love jihad" as at best fevered fantasies and at worst, deliberate election-time inventions."[137] According to the same report, the common theme regarding many claims of "love jihad" have been the frenzy objection to an interfaith marriage while "Indian law erects no barriers to marriages between faiths, or against conversion by willing and informed consent. Yet the idea still sticks, even when the supposed “victims” dismiss it as nonsense."[137]

The discourses of Love Jihad are also prevalent in Myanmar.[138] Wirathu, the leader of 969 Movement, has said that Muslim men pretend to be Buddhists and then the Buddhist women are allured into Islam in Myanmar.[139][140] He has urged to "protect our Buddhist women from the Muslim love-jihad" by introducing further legislations.[141]

Further reading[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. "Muzaffarnagar: 'Love jihad', beef bogey sparked riot flames". Hindustan Times. 12 Sep 2013. Retrieved 2014-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Stephen Brown (2009-10-16). "The "Love Jihad"". Front Page Mag. Retrieved 2014-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Ananthakrishnan G (2009-10-13). "'Love Jihad' racket: VHP, Christian groups find common cause". Times of India. Retrieved 2014-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Common" defined multiple times with different content
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Nair, Rupam Jain; Daniel, Frank Jack (5 September 2014). "'Love Jihad' and religious conversion polarise in Modi's India". Reuters. Retrieved 6 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. 5.0 5.1 Rambo, Lewis R.; Farhadian, Charles E. (18 February 2014). The Oxford Handbook of Religious Conversion. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-19-971354-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 "'Love jihad' piqued US interest". The Times of India. 6 Sep 2011. Retrieved 2012-09-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.0 7.1 Nelson, Dean (13 Oct 2009). "Handsome Muslim men accused of waging 'love jihad' in India". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 2012-09-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Mahanta, Siddhartha (5 September 2014). "India's Fake 'Love Jihad'". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 24 November 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Bhavnani, Nandita (29 July 2014). The Making of Exile: Sindhi Hindus and the Partition of India. Westland. pp. 253–255. ISBN 978-93-84030-33-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. 10.0 10.1 Huynh, Kim; Bina D'Costa; Katrina Lee-Koo (30 April 2015). Children and Global Conflict. Cambridge University Press. pp. 274–275. ISBN 978-1-316-29876-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Mandhana, Niharika (4 September 2014). "Hindu Activists in India Warn Women to Beware of 'Love Jihad'". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 6 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Ahloowalia, B. S. (2009). Invasion of the Genes: Genetic Heritage of India. Strategic Book Publishing. p. 159. ISBN 978-1-60860-691-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Indian Laws, Culture Boost Inter-Faith Marriages". Voice of America. 12 August 2002. Retrieved 7 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 "Jihad in the time of love". Mumbai Mirror. 31 August 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Dhar, Aarti (24 January 2012). "Law Commission's new draft wants khap panchayats on marriages declared illegal". The Hindu. Retrieved 7 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "Two booked for forcing wives to embrace Islam in Madhya Pradesh". Times of India. Retrieved 28 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Cornell, Vincent J. (2007). Voices of Islam: Voices of life : family, home, and society. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 61. ISBN 9780275987350. This includes Jew, Christians and Sabeans (a sect that most Muslims believe no longer exists). Zoroastrians, certain types of Hindus, and Buddhists are accepted by some Muslims as 'People of the Book' as well, but this is a matter of dispute.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. Brown, Stephen (16 Oct 2009). "The "Love Jihad"". Front Page Mag.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. 19.0 19.1 "Beware of 'love jihad'". Mathrubhumi. Kochi, Kerala, India: mathrubhumi.org. 2009-10-15. Retrieved 2009-10-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  20. "Is 'Love Jihad' terror's new mantra?". Rediff. 2009-10-14. Retrieved 2014-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. "Mangalore: Eight Hindu Organisations to Protest Against 'Love Jehad'". Daijiworld.com. 14 October 2009. Retrieved 2014-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. "SNDP to campaign against Love Jihad: Vellappally". Asianet. 19 October 2009. Archived from the original on 2012-03-10. Retrieved 20 October 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. "SNDP to join fight against 'Love Jihad'". ExpressBuzz. 19 October 2009. Retrieved 20 October 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. Yudhvir Rana (2011-01-10). "'Not just White girls, Pak Muslim men sexually target Hindu and Sikh girls as well". Times of India. Retrieved 2014-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. "Police protect girls forced to convert to Islam". Thisislondon.co.uk. 2007-02-22. Retrieved 2014-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. metrowebukmetro (2007-02-22). "Hindu girls targeted by extremists". Metro.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Sunny Hundal. "EDL and Sikh men unite in using women as pawns | Sunny Hundal | Opinion". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-09-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "Now 'Love Jihad' case in Bihar, girl forced to change her religion, pleads for justice". Daily Bhaskar. 2 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. "Taekwondo national player from UP says she is love jihad victim". India Today. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. "MP Love-Jihad: Nurse accuses husband for religion conversion and nikah". Daily Bhaskar. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. 31.0 31.1 HT Correspondent (27 January 2014). "'Love jihad': UK Sikh girls' exploitation worries Takht". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 6 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. Raghavan, B. S. (30 July 2010). "Kerala's demographic trends bear watching". The Hindu Business Line. The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 2012-09-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. Raj, Rohit (27 July 2012). "Filmmakers protest Love Jihad slur in social media". Deccan Chronicle. Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 2012-09-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 "Kerala CM criticised for speaking out against 'love jihad'". The Economic Times. 27 July 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Criticized" defined multiple times with different content
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 "Love jihad sparks hate". The Times of India. 17 December 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 "Over 2500 women converted to Islam in Kerala since 2006, says Oommen Chandy". India Today. 2012-09-04. Retrieved 2014-07-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. India TV Web Desk (2 September 2014). "Love Jihad: Hindu girl commits suicide after conversion". India TV. Retrieved 6 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 "Love jihad: National shooter Tara Shahdeo's husband arrested". TOI. Retrieved 28 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. "Shooter Tara Shahdeo granted divorce from Raqibul alias Ranjit Kohli". Indian Express.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. "Taekwondo national player from UP says she is love jihad victim". India Today. Retrieved 28 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. (official website of Hindu Janajagruti Samiti)
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 42.3 "Church, state concerned about ´love jihad´". Wayback.archive.org. Archived from the original on 18 October 2009. Retrieved 2014-04-22. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. muslim-boys-are-targeting-sikh-and-hindu-girls-to-convert-to-islam
  44. Rang, Ketan (2009-10-30). "Love Jihad's Baby Machines". Retrieved 2011-08-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. http://4freedoms.ning.com/group/Sikh/forum/topics/muslims-called-to-seduce-and-convert-sikh-girls
  46. 46.0 46.1 "DGP suspects presence of 'Love Jihad' in Kerala". Mathrubhumi.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 "Karnataka CID finds no evidence of 'Love Jihad'". The Hindu. 2009-11-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. 48.0 48.1 48.2 48.3 Staff Reporter (2010-04-23). "No love jihad movement in State'". The Hindu.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 49.4 Padanna, Ashraf (4 January 2012). "Kerala police probe crack 'love jihad' myth". The Gulf Today.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Myth" defined multiple times with different content
  50. Brown, Stephen (16 oct 2009). "The "Love Jihad"". frontpagemag. Check date values in: |date= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. "'Love jihad' piqued US interest". The Times of India. 6 Sep 2011. Retrieved 2012-09-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. "Indian Christian leader 'was convinced' about 'Love Jihad' - US official (Wikileaks)". RTN ASIA. archive.org. Retrieved 28 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. Ramachandran, Sudha (28 October 2009). "India lost in 'love jihad'". Asia Times. Asia Times. Retrieved 20 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. Anti-corruption Bureau, Vigilance (2 August 2016). "Kerala Anti-Corruption Body To Closely Watch Religious Conversions Involving Money". ISIS. Retrieved 6 August 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. [1] Archived 2017-02-22 at the Wayback Machine. BBC Inside Out London, 02/09/2013: see from 06:00
  56. "Code of silence on sexual grooming?". bbc.co.uk. 2 Sep 2013. Archived from the original on 1 September 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. 57.0 57.1 [2] BBC Inside Out London, 02/09/2013: see from 24:10
  58. "Leicester child prostitution trial: Men admit paying girl, 16, for sex". BBC News. 1 August 2013. Archived from the original on 1 September 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-23632247
  60. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-23921570
  61. lawandfreedomfoundation.org: "Easy Meat: Multiculturalism, Islam and child sex slavery"
  62. [http://web:archive:org/web/20080627112924/http://www:radionetherlands:nl/currentaffairs/region/netherlands/netherlands011218:html Carin Tiggeloven, “Child Prostitution in the Netherlands”, Radio Netherlands, 18 Dec 2001]
  63. 63.0 63.1 63.2 Sian, Katy. "'Forced' Conversions in the British Sikh Diaspora" (PDF). Centre for Ethnicity & Racism Studies School of Sociology and Social Policy University of Leeds. Retrieved 14 June 2013. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. 64.0 64.1 Katy P. Sian (4 April 2013). Unsettling Sikh and Muslim Conflict: Mistaken Identities, Forced Conversions, and Postcolonial Formations. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 55–71. ISBN 978-0-7391-7874-4. Retrieved 15 June 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. Sian, Katy P. (6 July 2011). "'Forced' conversions in the British Sikh diaspora". South Asian Popular Culture.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. Rochdale grooming convictions of men of Muslim Pakistani descent
  67. independent.co.uk: "Five guilty of grooming teenage girls for sex" 5 Nov 2010
  68. [http://web:archive:org/web/20080627112924/http://www:radionetherlands:nl/currentaffairs/region/netherlands/netherlands011218:html Carin Tiggeloven, “Child Prostitution in the Netherlands”, Radio Netherlands, 18 Dec 2001]
  69. 69.0 69.1 69.2 telegraph.co.uk: "Children injured in school rampage" 17 Oct 2001
  70. 70.0 70.1 asiansinmedia.org: "The case of Pakistani men 'grooming' young white girls - part 2" 19 Sep 2005
  71. "Pakistan, Islam in". Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 29 August 2010. Approximately 97 percent of Pakistanis are Muslim. The majority are Sunnis following the Hanafi school of Islamic law. Between 10 and 15 percent are Shias, mostly Twelvers.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. theorwellprize.co.uk: "Andrew Norfolk: Journalism" 2013
  73. The Times of London: "Town where girls were betrayed -- first by groomers, then by police" 24 Sep 2012
  74. {{|url=http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/bjp-rss-narendra-modi-love-jihad-muslim-marrying-hindu-women/1/378759.html}}
  75. {{|url=http://zeenews.india.com/sports/others/shooter-tara-sachdev-alleges-husband-of-forceful-conversion_794928.html}}
  76. Shooter Tara Sachdev victim of ‘Love Jihad’?
  77. National Indian Athlete Fooled into Marriage then Beaten, Bitten by Dogs, Forced to Convert to Islam
  78. UP: Gangrape, forced conversion of 20-year-old girl puts Meerut on the boil First Post (August 2014)
  79. 79.0 79.1 Babu Thomas (26 September 2009). "Poster campaign against 'Love Jihad'". expressbuzz.com. Retrieved 17 October 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. "'Rama Sene to launch 'Save our daughters Save India'". times of India. 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2014-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  81. "'Love Jihad' a misinformation campaign: Kerala Muslim outfits". Times of India. 2009-11-02. Retrieved 2014-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. "'Anti Muslim forces phrase 'Love Jihad''". Sahilonline.org. Archived from the original on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 2014-04-18. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. 83.0 83.1 83.2 "Kerala CM reignites 'love jihad' theory". Times of India. 26 July 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Reignites" defined multiple times with different content
  84. "Love jihad cases: Mahila Morcha for NIA probe". Express News Service. The New Indian Express Group. 25 July 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. gujarat
  86. [3]
  87. muslim-boys-are-targeting-sikh-and-hindu-girls-to-convert-to-islam
  88. hindu-girls-targeted-by-extremists
  89. http://www.mid-day.com/news/2009/oct/301009-Islamic-body-Love-Jihad-Hindu-Christian.htm Islamic-body-Love-Jihad]
  90. [4]
  91. Hindu-girl-forced-to-convert-to-Islam
  92. police-protect-girls-forced-to-convert-to-islam
  93. [5]
  94. hindu-girls-targeted-by-extremists
  95. "Sullia: Prabhakara Bhat Resents Injustices Inflicted on Hindu Society". Daijiworld.com. 17 December 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  96. Vohra, Paromita (18 December 2011). "Love, Sting Aur Dhoka". The Indian Express. Retrieved 22 December 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  97. "Spate of conversions, 'love jihad' cases hint at more disappearances". firstpost.com. 25 June 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  98. 98.0 98.1 "Love Jihad: High Court asks UP govt, EC to file response". India TV. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  99. 99.0 99.1 Mishra, Ishita (2 September 2014). "In UP, community bans mobiles for girls to fight 'love jihad'". The Times of India. Retrieved 6 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  100. Saha, Abhishek (1 September 2014). "Amid rage over 'Love Jihad' what about what women want?". New Delhi. Retrieved 6 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  101. Aravind, Indulekha (6 September 2014). "Love Jihad campaign treats women as if they are foolish: Charu Gupta". Business Standard. Retrieved 6 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  102. Akram, Maria (29 August 2014). "'Netas using love jihad as a tool for polarization'". Times of India. Retrieved 7 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  103. Nelson, Dean (2 September 2014). "'We need to talk about 'Love Jihad says minister: India's Muslim boys seducing Hindu girls to force their conversion". Telegraph. Retrieved 6 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  104. "BJP Unnao MP Sakshi Maharaj claims madrasas offering cash rewards for love jihad". Indian Express. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  105. "Muslim Cleric Blasts Sakshi Maharaj for Jihad Factory Remark". Times of India. 17 September 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  106. "Azam slams Sakshi Maharaj on madarssa issue, calls him "rapist"". India TV News. 17 September 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  107. "Meerut woman denies 'love jihad', says she eloped". India Today. 13 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  108. "Star Power Kareena Used As Warning Against Love Jihad". Hindustan Times. 7 January 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  109. "Kareena Kapoor is now the face of VHP's love jihad campaign". India Today. 8 January 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  110. "Karnataka to take steps to counter 'Love Jihad' movement". Deccan Herald. 2009-10-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  111. "Govt directs CID to probe 'love jihad'". Times of India. 2009-10-27. Retrieved 2014-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  112. "Love jihad: HC orders thorough probe by DGP". Times of India. 2009-10-22. Retrieved 2014-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  113. "Woman denies 'love jihad', court lets her to go with lover". Thaindian News. 2009-11-13. Retrieved 2014-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  114. "Love Jihad: girl rescued". Times of India. 2010-04-06. Retrieved 2014-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  115. "No 'Love Jihad' in Kerala". Deccan Herald. 2013-05-21. Retrieved 2014-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  116. "Kerala HC wants probe into 'love jihad'". Indian Express.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  117. 117.0 117.1 "Kerala police have no proof on 'Love Jihad'". Deccan Herald. 2009-11-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  118. 118.0 118.1 118.2 "Kerala HC asks govt to frame laws to stop 'love jihad'". The Economic Times. 2009-12-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  119. 119.0 119.1 "HC calls for law to check 'love jehad'". The Indian Express. 2009-12-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  120. "Kerala cops fail to establish 'love jihad' conspiracy". Ibnlive. 2009-12-23. Retrieved 2014-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  121. "'Love-jihad' row: Allahabad High Court issues notice to Centre, Uttar Pradesh government". DNA. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  122. "NIA raids customs officer's Bengaluru house". Times of India. New Delhi: Bennett, Coleman & Co.Ltd. 1 July 2018. Retrieved 2 July 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  123. "In 4 of 11 'love jihad' cases, Hindu men converted to Islam, finds NIA". Hindustan Times. New Delhi: KK Birla group. 8 March 2018. Retrieved 11 July 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  124. "NIA raids customs officer's Bengaluru house". Times of India. New Delhi: Bennett, Coleman & Co.Ltd. 1 July 2018. Retrieved 2 July 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  125. "Muslim boy poses as Hindu to marry girl, shoots her after his identity was revealed". India Today.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  126. "Man-sexually-exploit-girl-now-pressurize-her-for-religion-conversion". Jansatta.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  127. "Muzaffarnagar: 'Love jihad', beef bogey sparked riot flames". Hindustan Times. 12 September 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  128. Saini, Vishwanath (2019-02-01). "लव जिहाद का आरोप लगाते हुए लड़की ने कैमरे के सामने सुनाई दास्तां, देखें वीडियो". https://hindi.oneindia.com (in हिन्दी). Retrieved 2019-02-16. External link in |website= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  129. "Triple talaq in times of love jihad: Banning instant triple talaq's a good idea but won't build bridges between Muslims and BJP". Times of India. New Delhi: Bennett, Coleman & Co.Ltd. 3 January 2018. Retrieved 3 January 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  130. 'Love jihad': Kerala high court stays police investigation DNA News
  131. "Top Counter-Terror Agency, NIA, To Probe Kerala 'Love Jihad' Marriage.", NDTV, 16 August 2017.
  132. "NIA probe on 'love jihad' may cover all suspicious cases.", Economic Times, 16 August 2017.
  133. "Supreme Court hears its 1st 'love jihad' case, demands proof from NIA", The Times of India, 5 August 2017.
  134. "Kerala 'Love Jihad' Case: NIA to Assess Ramifications on National Security." Archived 16 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine., CNN News18, 10 August 2017.
  135. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ordersprobe
  136. "NIA finds a common mentor in Kerala 'love jihad' cases". Times of India. New Delhi: Bennett, Coleman & Co.Ltd. 28 August 2017. Retrieved 10 September 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  137. 137.0 137.1 "India is working itself into a frenzy about interfaith marriages". The Economist. 30 September 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  138. Marius Timmann Mjaaland (2019). Formatting Religion: Across Politics, Education, Media, and Law. Taylor & Francis. p. 89. ISBN 9780429638275.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  139. Kesavan Mukul. "South Asia: Murderous majorities".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  140. Iselin Frydenlund. "Buddhist Islamophobia: Actors, Tropes, Contexts".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  141. "Buddhist backlash against fear of 'love-jihad'". Bangkok Post. 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links[edit]