Buddhism and Western philosophy

From Dharmapedia Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Buddhist thought and Western philosophy include several interesting parallels. Before the 20th century, a few European thinkers such as Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche had engaged with Buddhist thought. Likewise, in Asian nations with Buddhist populations, there were also attempts to bring the insights of Western thought to Buddhist philosophy, as can be seen in the rise of Buddhist modernism.

After the post-war spread of Buddhism to the West there has been considerable interest by some scholars in a comparative, cross-cultural approach between Eastern and Western philosophy. Much of this work is now published in academic journals such as Philosophy East and West.

Ancient Western philosophy[edit]

According to Edward Conze, Greek Skepticism (particularly that of Pyrrho) can be compared to Buddhist philosophy, especially the Indian Madhyamika school.[1] The Pyrrhonian Skeptics' goal of ataraxia (the state of being untroubled) is a soteriological goal. The core teaching of Pyrrho was that things are adiaphora (undifferentiated by a logical differentia), astathmēta (unstable, unbalanced, not measurable), and anepikrita (unjudged, unfixed, undecidable). This is strikingly similar to the Buddhist Three marks of existence.[2]

They promoted withholding judgment (Epoché) about facts of the world as a way to reach that goal. This is similar to the Buddha's refusal to answer certain metaphysical questions which he saw as non-conductive to the path of Buddhist practice and Nagarjuna's "relinquishing of all views (drsti)". Adrian Kuzminski argues for direct influence between these two systems of thought. In Pyrrhonism: How the Ancient Greeks Reinvented Buddhism, Kuzminski writes: "its origin can plausibly be traced to the contacts between Pyrrho and the sages he encountered in India, where he traveled with Alexander the Great."[3] According to Kuzminski, both philosophies argue against assenting to any dogmatic assertions about an ultimate metaphysical reality behind our sense impressions as a tactic to reach tranquility and both also make use of logical arguments against other philosophies in order to expose their contradictions.[3] Buddhist thought can also be compared to Classical Cynicism and Stoicism, in that all of these world views sought to develop a set of practices to reach a state of equanimity by the removal of desires and passions.

Porphyry's report says that Plotinus, Ammonius' foremost student, acquired his high esteem for Indian philosophy and his eager desire to travel to India from Ammonius.[4] The interpretation that "Saccas" denotes ethnic northern Indian origin, rather than alluding to Gautama Buddha, supports the possibility that Ammonius may have been raised a Christian, who reverted to paganism, as reported by Eusebius,[5] drawing on Porphyry's Contra Christianos. In this case Ammonius may have been a second-generation Indian who remained in contact with the philosophy of his ancestral country. The intensity of commerce of goods and ideas between Alexandria and India makes this a wholly possible option. The link to India however is not only consistent with Plotinus' passion for India, but also helps to explain the often noted substantial agreements and shared ideas between Vedanta and Neoplatonism which are increasingly attributed to direct Indian influence.[6] Most details of his life come from the fragments left from Porphyry's writings. The most famous pupil of Ammonius Saccas was Plotinus who studied under Ammonius for eleven years. According to Porphyry, in 232, at the age of 28, Plotinus went to Alexandria to study philosophy:

In his twenty-eighth year he [Plotinus] felt the impulse to study philosophy and was recommended to the teachers in Alexandria who then had the highest reputation; but he came away from their lectures so depressed and full of sadness that he told his trouble to one of his friends. The friend, understanding the desire of his heart, sent him to Ammonius, whom he had not so far tried. He went and heard him, and said to his friend, "This is the man I was looking for." From that day he stayed continually with Ammonius and acquired so complete a training in philosophy that he became eager to make acquaintance with the Persian philosophical discipline and that prevailing among the Indians.[7]

Plotinus, after spending the next eleven years in Alexandria, he then decided, at the age of around 38, to investigate the philosophical teachings of the Persian philosophers and the Indian philosophers.[8] In the pursuit of this endeavor he left Alexandria and joined the army of Gordian III as it marched on Persia. However, the campaign was a failure, and on Gordian's eventual death Plotinus found himself abandoned in a hostile land, and only with difficulty found his way back to safety in Antioch.

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Ananda Coomaraswamy used the writing of Plotinus in their own texts as a superlative elaboration upon Indian monism, specifically Upanishadic and Advaita Vedantic thought.[citation needed] Coomaraswamy has compared Plotinus' teachings to the Hindu school of Advaita Vedanta (advaita meaning "not two" or "non-dual").[9] Advaita Vedanta and Neoplatonism have been compared by J. F. Staal,[10] Frederick Copleston,[11] Aldo Magris and Mario Piantelli,[12] Radhakrishnan,[13] Gwen Griffith-Dickson,[14] and John Y. Fenton.[15] The joint influence of Advaitin and Neoplatonic ideas on Ralph Waldo Emerson was considered by Dale Riepe in 1967.[16]

Philostratus devoted two and a half of the eight books of his Life of Apollonius (1.19–3.58) to the description of a journey of his hero to India. According to Philostratus' Life, en route to the Far East, Apollonius reached Hierapolis Bambyce (Manbij) in Syria (not Nineveh, as some scholars believed), where he met Damis, a native of that city who became his lifelong companion. Pythagoras, whom the Neo-Pythagoreans regarded as an exemplary sage, was believed to have travelled to India. Hence such a feat made Apollonius look like a good Pythagorean who spared no pains in his efforts to discover the sources of oriental piety and wisdom. As some details in Philostratus’ account of the Indian adventure seem incompatible with known facts, modern scholars are inclined to dismiss the whole story as a fanciful fabrication, but not all of them rule out the possibility that the Tyanean actually did visit India.[17] What seemed to be independent evidence showing that Apollonius was known in India has now been proved to be forged. In two Sanskrit texts quoted by Sanskritist Vidhushekhara Bhattacharya in 1943[18] he appears as "Apalūnya", in one of them together with Damis (called "Damīśa"), it is claimed that Apollonius and Damis were Western yogis, who later on were converted to the correct Advaita philosophy.[19] Some have believed that these Indian sources derived their information from a Sanskrit translation of Philostratus’ work (which would have been a most uncommon and amazing occurrence), or even considered the possibility that it was really an independent confirmation of the historicity of the journey to India.[20] Only in 1995 were the passages in the Sanskrit texts proven to be interpolations by a late 19th century forger.[21]

From the Middle Ages to the Renaissance and Hume[edit]

Spinoza[edit]

Similarities between Spinoza's philosophy and Eastern philosophical traditions have been discussed by many authors. The 19th-century German Sanskritist Theodor Goldstücker was one of the early figures to notice the similarities between Spinoza's religious conceptions and the Vedanta tradition of India, writing that Spinoza's thought was

... a western system of philosophy which occupies a foremost rank amongst the philosophies of all nations and ages, and which is so exact a representation of the ideas of the Vedanta, that we might have suspected its founder to have borrowed the fundamental principles of his system from the Hindus, did his biography not satisfy us that he was wholly unacquainted with their doctrines... We mean the philosophy of Spinoza, a man whose very life is a picture of that moral purity and intellectual indifference to the transitory charms of this world, which is the constant longing of the true Vedanta philosopher... comparing the fundamental ideas of both we should have no difficulty in proving that, had Spinoza been a Hindu, his system would in all probability mark a last phase of the Vedanta philosophy.[22][23]

Max Müller, in his lectures, noted the striking similarities between Vedanta and the system of Spinoza, saying "the Brahman, as conceived in the Upanishads and defined by Sankara, is clearly the same as Spinoza's 'Substantia'."[24] Helena Blavatsky, a founder of the Theosophical Society also compared Spinoza's religious thought to Vedanta, writing in an unfinished essay "As to Spinoza's Deity—natura naturans—conceived in his attributes simply and alone; and the same Deity—as natura naturata or as conceived in the endless series of modifications or correlations, the direct out-flowing results from the properties of these attributes, it is the Vedantic Deity pure and simple."[25]

  • [From Schopenhauer's assessments of other philosophers] Bruno and Spinoza are to be entirely excepted. Each stands by himself and alone; and they do not belong either to their age or to their part of the globe, which rewarded the one with death, and the other with persecution and ignominy. Their miserable existence and death in this Western world are like that of a tropical plant in Europe. The banks of the Ganges were their spiritual home ; there, they would have led a peaceful and honoured life among men of like mind.

Leibniz[edit]

Leibniz was perhaps the first major European intellectual to take a close interest in Chinese civilization, which he knew by corresponding with, and reading other works by, European Christian missionaries posted in China. Having read Confucius Sinarum Philosophus on the first year of its publication,[26] he concluded that Europeans could learn much from the Confucian ethical tradition. He mulled over the possibility that the Chinese characters were an unwitting form of his universal characteristic. He noted with fascination how the I Ching hexagrams correspond to the binary numbers from 000000 to 111111, and concluded that this mapping was evidence of major Chinese accomplishments in the sort of philosophical mathematics he admired.[27] Leibniz communicated his ideas of the binary system representing Christianity to the Emperor of China hoping it would convert him.[28] Leibniz may be the only major Western philosopher who attempted to accommodate Confucian ideas to prevailing European beliefs.[29]

Leibniz's attraction to Chinese philosophy originates from his perception that Chinese philosophy was similar to his own.[26] The historian E.R. Hughes suggests that Leibniz's ideas of "simple substance" and "pre-established harmony" were directly influenced by Confucianism, pointing to the fact that they were conceived during the period that he was reading Confucius Sinarum Philosophus.[26]

Hume and Not-Self[edit]

The Scottish philosopher David Hume wrote:

"When I enter most intimately into what I call myself, I always stumble on some particular perception or other, of heat or cold, light or shade, love or hatred, pain or pleasure. I never catch myself at any time without a perception, and never can observe any thing but the perception"[30]

According to Hume then there is nothing that is constantly stable which we could identify as the self, only a flow of differing experiences. Our view that there is something substantive which binds all of these experiences together is for Hume merely imaginary. The self is a fiction that is attributed to the entire flow of experiences.[31]

Pain and pleasure, grief and joy, passions and sensations succeed each other, and never all exist at the same time. It cannot, therefore, be from any of these impressions, or from any other, that the idea of self is deriv'd; and consequently there is no such idea...I may venture to affirm of the rest of mankind, that they are nothing but a bundle or collection of different perceptions, which succeed each other with an inconceivable rapidity, and are in a perpetual flux and movement.[30]

This 'Bundle theory' of personal identity is very similar to the Buddhist notion of not-self, which holds that the unitary self is a fiction and that nothing exists but a collection of five aggregates.[31][32] Similarly, both Hume and Buddhist philosophy hold that it is perfectly acceptable to speak of personal identity in a mundane and conventional way, while believing that there are ultimately no such things.[31] Hume scholar Alison Gopnik has even argued that Hume could have had contact with Buddhist philosophy during his stay in France (which coincided with his writing of the Treatise of Human Nature) through the well traveled Jesuit missionaries of the Royal College of La Flèche.[32]

British philosopher Derek Parfit has argued for a reductionist and deflationary theory of personal identity in his book Reasons and Persons. According to Parfit, apart from a causally connected stream of mental and physical events, there are no “separately existing entities, distinct from our brains and bodies”. Parfit concludes that "Buddha would have agreed."[33] Parfit also argues that this view is liberating and leads to increased empathy.

Is the truth depressing? Some may find it so. But I find it liberating, and consoling. When I believed that my existence was such a further fact, I seemed imprisoned in myself. My life seemed like a glass tunnel, through which I was moving faster every year, and at the end of which there was darkness. When I changed my view, the walls of my glass tunnel disappeared. I now live in the open air. There is still a difference between my lives and the lives of other people. But the difference is less. Other people are closer. I am less concerned about the rest of my own life, and more concerned about the lives of others.[34]

According to The New Yorker's Larissa MacFarquhar, passages of Reasons and Persons have been studied and chanted at a Tibetan Buddhist monastery.[35]

Other Western philosophers that have attacked the view of a fixed self include Daniel Dennett (in his paper 'The Self as a Center of Narrative Gravity') and Thomas Metzinger ('The Ego Tunnel').

Voltaire[edit]

Commenting on the sacred texts of the Hindus, the Vedas, Voltaire observed:

The Veda was the most precious gift for which the West had ever been indebted to the East.[36]

He regarded Hindus as "[a] peaceful and innocent people, equally incapable of hurting others or of defending themselves".[37] Voltaire was himself a supporter of animal rights and was a vegetarian.[38] He used the antiquity of Hinduism to land what he saw as a devastating blow to the Bible's claims and acknowledged that the Hindus' treatment of animals showed a shaming alternative to the immorality of European imperialists.[39]

Kant[edit]

Idealism is the group of philosophies which assert that reality, or reality as we can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial. Some Buddhist philosophical views have been interpreted as having Idealistic tendencies, mainly the cittamatra (mind-only) philosophy of Yogacara Buddhism[40] as outlined in the works of Vasubandhu and Xuanzang.[41] Metaphysical Idealism has been the orthodox position of the Chinese Yogacara school or Fǎxiàng-zōng.[42] According to Buddhist philosopher Vasubhandu "The transformation of consciousness is imagination. What is imagined by it does not exist. Therefore everything is representation-only." This has been compared to the Idealist philosophies of Bishop Berkeley and Immanuel Kant. Kant's categories have also been compared to the Yogacara concept of karmic vasanas (perfumings) which condition our mental reality.[41]

Immanuel Kant's Transcendental Idealism has also been compared with the Indian philosophical approach of the Madhyamaka school by scholars such as T. R. V. Murti.[43] Both posit that the world of experience is in one sense a mere fabrication of our senses and mental faculties. For Kant and the Madhyamikas, we do not have access to 'things in themselves' because they are always filtered by our mind's 'interpretative framework'.[44] Thus both worldviews posit that there is an ultimate reality and that Reason is unable to reach it. Buddhologists like Edward Conze have also seen similarities between Kant's antinomies and the unanswerable questions of the Buddha in that "they are both concerned with whether the world is finite or infinite, etc., and in that they are both left undecided."[45]

Hegel[edit]

Shelling[edit]


Schopenhauer[edit]

Arthur Schopenhauer was influenced by Indian religious texts and later claimed that Buddhism was the "best of all possible religions."[46] Schopenhauer's view that "suffering is the direct and immediate object of life"[47] and that this is driven by an "restless willing and striving" are similar to the four noble truths of the Buddha.[48] Schopenhauer promoted the saintly ascetic life of the Indian sramanas as a way to renounce the Will.[49] His view that a single world-essence (The Will) comes to manifest itself as a multiplicity of individual things (principium individuationis) has been compared to the Buddhist trikaya doctrine as developed in Yogacara Buddhism.[49] Finally, Schopenhauer's ethics which are based on universal compassion for the suffering of others can be compared to the Buddhist ethics of Karuṇā.[50]

Schopenhauer read the Latin translation of the ancient Hindu texts, the Upanishads, which French writer Anquetil du Perron had translated from the Persian translation of Prince Dara Shukoh entitled Sirre-Akbar ("The Great Secret"). He was so impressed by their philosophy that he called them "the production of the highest human wisdom", and believed they contained superhuman concepts. The Upanishads was a great source of inspiration to Schopenhauer. Writing about them, he said:

It is the most satisfying and elevating reading (with the exception of the original text) which is possible in the world; it has been the solace of my life and will be the solace of my death.[51]

It is well known that the book Oupnekhat (Upanishad) always lay open on his table, and he invariably studied it before sleeping at night. He called the opening up of Sanskrit literature "the greatest gift of our century" and predicted that the philosophy and knowledge of the Upanishads would become the cherished faith of the West.[52]

Schopenhauer was first introduced to the 1802 Latin Upanishad translation through Friedrich Majer. They met during the winter of 1813–1814 in Weimar at the home of Schopenhauer's mother according to the biographer Safranski. Majer was a follower of Herder, and an early Indologist. Schopenhauer did not begin a serious study of the Indic texts, however, until the summer of 1814. Sansfranski maintains that between 1815 and 1817, Schopenhauer had another important cross-pollination with Indian thought in Dresden. This was through his neighbor of two years, Karl Christian Friedrich Krause. Krause was then a minor and rather unorthodox philosopher who attempted to mix his own ideas with that of ancient Indian wisdom. Krause had also mastered Sanskrit, unlike Schopenhauer, and the two developed a professional relationship. It was from Krause that Schopenhauer learned meditation and received the closest thing to expert advice concerning Indian thought.[53]

Most noticeable, in the case of Schopenhauer’s work, was the significance of the Chandogya Upanishad, whose Mahāvākya, Tat Tvam Asi, is mentioned throughout The World as Will and Representation.[54]

Schopenhauer noted a correspondence between his doctrines and the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism.[55] Similarities centered on the principles that life involves suffering, that suffering is caused by desire (taṇhā), and that the extinction of desire leads to liberation. Thus three of the four "truths of the Buddha" correspond to Schopenhauer's doctrine of the will.[56] In Buddhism, however, while greed and lust are always unskillful, desire is ethically variable – it can be skillful, unskillful, or neutral.[57]

For Schopenhauer, Will had ontological primacy over the intellect; in other words, desire is understood to be prior to thought. Schopenhauer felt this was similar to notions of puruṣārtha or goals of life in Vedānta Hinduism.

In Schopenhauer's philosophy, denial of the will is attained by either:

  • personal experience of an extremely great suffering that leads to loss of the will to live; or
  • knowledge of the essential nature of life in the world through observation of the suffering of other people.

However, Buddhist nirvāṇa is not equivalent to the condition that Schopenhauer described as denial of the will. Nirvāṇa is not the extinguishing of the person as some Western scholars have thought, but only the "extinguishing" (the literal meaning of nirvana) of the flames of greed, hatred, and delusion that assail a person's character.[58] Occult historian Joscelyn Godwin (born 1945) stated, "It was Buddhism that inspired the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer, and, through him, attracted Richard Wagner."[59] This Orientalism reflected the struggle of the German Romantics, in the words of Leon Poliakov, to "free themselves from Judeo-Christian fetters".[60] In contradistinction to Godwin's claim that Buddhism inspired Schopenhauer, the philosopher himself made the following statement in his discussion of religions:[61]

If I wished to take the results of my philosophy as the standard of truth, I should have to concede to Buddhism pre-eminence over the others. In any case, it must be a pleasure to me to see my doctrine in such close agreement with a religion that the majority of men on earth hold as their own, for this numbers far more followers than any other. And this agreement must be yet the more pleasing to me, inasmuch as in my philosophizing I have certainly not been under its influence [emphasis added]. For up till 1818, when my work appeared, there was to be found in Europe only a very few accounts of Buddhism.[62]

Buddhist philosopher Nishitani Keiji, however, sought to distance Buddhism from Schopenhauer.[63] While Schopenhauer's philosophy may sound rather mystical in such a summary, his methodology was resolutely empirical, rather than speculative or transcendental:

Philosophy ... is a science, and as such has no articles of faith; accordingly, in it nothing can be assumed as existing except what is either positively given empirically, or demonstrated through indubitable conclusions.[64]

Also note:

This actual world of what is knowable, in which we are and which is in us, remains both the material and the limit of our consideration.[65]

The argument that Buddhism affected Schopenhauer's philosophy more than any other Dharmic faith loses more credence when viewed in light of the fact that Schopenhauer did not begin a serious study of Buddhism until after the publication of The World as Will and Representation in 1818.[66] Scholars have started to revise earlier views about Schopenhauer's discovery of Buddhism. Proof of early interest and influence, however, appears in Schopenhauer's 1815/16 notes (transcribed and translated by Urs App) about Buddhism. They are included in a recent case study that traces Schopenhauer's interest in Buddhism and documents its influence.[67] Other scholarly work questions how similar Schopenhauer's philosophy actually is to Buddhism.[68]


Nietzsche[edit]

Nietzsche and Asian Thought

Friedrich Nietzsche admired Buddhism, writing that it "Buddhism already has -- and this distinguishes it profoundly from Christianity -- the self-deception of moral concepts behind it -- it stands, in my language, Beyond Good and Evil."[69] Nietzsche saw himself as undertaking a similar project to the Buddha, “I could become the Buddha of Europe,” he wrote in 1883, “though frankly I would be the antipode of the Indian Buddha.”[70] Nietzsche (as well as Buddha) accepted that all is change and becoming, and both sought to create an ethics which was not based on a God or an Absolutist Being.[71] Nietzsche believed that Buddhism's goal of Nirvana was a form of life denying nihilism and promoted what he saw as its inversion, life affirmation and amor fati. According to Benjamin A. Elman, Nietzsche's interpretation of Buddhism as pessimistic and life-denying was probably influenced by his understanding of Schopenhauer's views of eastern philosophy and therefore "he was predisposed to react to Buddhism in terms of his close reading of Schopenhauer."[72] Because of this writes Elman, Nietzsche misinterprets Buddhism as promoting "nothingness" and nihilism, all of which the Buddha and other Buddhist philosophers such as Nagarjuna repudiated, in favor of a subtler understanding of Shunyata.[72]

Antoine Panaïoti argues in Nietzsche and Buddhist philosophy that both of these systems of thought begin by wrestling with the problem of nihilism and that they both develop a therapeutic outlook for dealing with the suffering and anxiety brought about by the crisis of nihilism. While Nietzsche and Buddhism do diverge in some ways, which is why Nietzsche saw himself as an 'Anti-Buddha", Panaïoti stresses the similarity of both systems as paths towards a “vision of great health” that allows one to deal with the impermanent world of becoming by accepting it as it truly is.[73] Ultimately both world views have as their ideal what Panaïoti calls "great health perfectionism" which seeks to remove unhealthy tendencies from human beings and reach an exceptional state of self-development.

Robert G. Morrison has also written on the "ironic affinities" between Nietzsche and Pali Buddhism through close textual comparison, such as that between Nietzsche's 'self-overcoming' (Selbstuberwindung) and the Buddhist concept of mental development (citta-bhavana).[74] Morrison also sees an affinity between the Buddhist concept of tanha, or craving and Nietzsche's view of the Will to Power as well as in their understandings of personality as a flux of different psycho-physical forces.[75] The similarity between Nietzsche's view of the Ego as flux and the Buddhist concept of anatta is also noted by Benjamin Elman.[72]

David Loy also quotes Nietzsche's views on the subject as "something added and invented and projected behind what there is" (Will to Power 481) and on substance ("The properties of a thing are effects on other 'things' ... there is no 'thing-in-itself.'" WP 557), which are similar to Buddhist nominalist views. Loy however sees Nietzsche as failing to understand that his promotion of heroic aristocratic values and affirmation of will to power is just as much of a reaction to the 'sense of lack' which arises from the impermanence of the subject as what he calls slave morality.[76]

Comparative work has also been done by Japanese interpreters of Nietzsche and Buddhism, such as Nishitani Keiji, in his The Self Overcoming Nihilism (Albany, N.Y., 1990), and Abe Masao in his essays on Nietzsche. In his "A History of Western Philosophy", Bertrand Russell pitted Nietzsche against the Buddha, ultimately criticizing Nietzsche for his promotion of violence, elitism and hatred of compassionate love.

Phenomenology and Existentialism[edit]

File:Nanavira Thera.jpg
Ñāṇavīra Thera developed an interpretation of the Pali Canon influenced by Phenomenology and Existentialism.

The German Buddhist monk Nyanaponika Thera wrote that the Buddhist Abhidhamma philosophy "doubtlessly belongs" to Phenomenology and that the Buddhist term dhamma could be rendered as "phenomena".[77] Likewise, Alexander Piatigorsky sees early Buddhist Abhidhamma philosophy as being a "phenomenological approach".[78]

According to Dan Lusthaus, Buddhism "is a type of phenomenology; Yogacara even moreso."[79] Some scholars reject the idealist interpretation of Yogacara Buddhist philosophy and instead interpret it through the lens of Western Phenomenology which is the study of conscious processes from the subjective point of view.[80]

Christian Coseru argues in his monograph "Perceiving reality" that Buddhist philosophers such as Dharmakirti, Śāntarakṣita and Kamalaśīla "share a common ground with phenomenologists in the tradition of Edmund Husserl and Maurice Merleau-Ponty." That common ground is the notion of the intentionality of consciousness.[81] Coseru compares the concepts of the object aspect (grāhyākāra) and the subject aspect (grāhakākāra) of consciousness to the Husserlian concepts of Noesis and Noema.

Modern Buddhist thinkers who have been influenced by Western Phenomenology and Existentialism include Ñāṇavīra Thera, Nanamoli Bhikkhu, R. G. de S. Wettimuny, Samanera Bodhesako and Ninoslav Ñāṇamoli.

Husserl[edit]

Edmund Husserl, the founder of Phenomenology, wrote that "I could not tear myself away" while reading the Buddhist Sutta Pitaka in the German translation of Karl Eugen Neumann.[82][83] Husserl held that the Buddha's method as he understood it was very similar to his own. Eugen Fink, who was Husserl's chief assistant and whom Husserl considered to be his most trusted interpreter said that: "the various phases of Buddhistic self-discipline were essentially phases of phenomenological reduction."[84] After reading the Buddhist texts, Husserl wrote a short essay entitled 'On the discourses of Gautama Buddha' (Über die Reden Gotomo Buddhos) which states:

Complete linguistic analysis of the Buddhist canonical writings provides us with a perfect opportunity of becoming acquainted with this means of seeing the world which is completely opposite of our European manner of observation, of setting ourselves in its perspective, and of making its dynamic results truly comprehensive through experience and understanding. For us, for anyone, who lives in this time of the collapse of our own exploited, decadent culture and has had a look around to see where spiritual purity and truth, where joyous mastery of the world manifests itself, this manner of seeing means a great adventure. That Buddhism - insofar as it speaks to us from pure original sources - is a religio-ethical discipline for spiritual purification and fulfillment of the highest stature - conceived of and dedicated to an inner result of a vigorous and unparalleled, elevated frame of mind, will soon become clear to every reader who devotes themselves to the work. Buddhism is comparable only with the highest form of the philosophy and religious spirit of our European culture. It is now our task to utilize this (to us) completely new Indian spiritual discipline which has been revitalized and strengthened by the contrast.[82]

Fred J Hanna and Lau Kwok Ying both note that when Husserl calls Buddhism "transcendental" he is placing it on the same level as his own transcendental phenomenology.[83] Also, that Husserl called Buddhism a "great adventure" is significant, since he referred to his own philosophy in that way as well - as a methodology which changes the way one views reality which also brings about personal transformation.[82] Husserl also wrote about Buddhist philosophy in an unpublished manuscript "Sokrates - Buddha" in which he compared the Buddhist philosophical attitude with the Western tradition. Husserl saw a similarity between the Socratic good life lived under the maxim "Know yourself" and the Buddhist philosophy, he argues that they both have the same attitude, which is a combination of the pure theoretical attitude of the sciences and the pragmatic attitudes of everyday life. This third attitude is based on "a praxis whose aim is to elevate humankind through universal scientific reason."[83]

Husserl also saw a similarity between Buddhist analysis of experience and his own method of epoche which is a suspension of judgment about metaphysical assumptions and presuppositions about the 'external' world (assumptions he termed 'the naturalistic attitude). However Husserl also thought that Buddhism has not developed into a unifying science which can unite all knowledge since it remains a religious-ethical system and hence it is not able to qualify as a full transcendental phenomenology.[83]

According to Aaron Prosser, "The phenomenological investigations of Siddhartha Gautama and Edmund Husserl arrive at the exact same conclusion concerning a fundamental and invariant structure of consciousness. Namely, that object-directed consciousness has a transcendental correlational intentional structure, and that this is fundamental -- in the sense of basic and necessary--to all object-directed experiences."[85]

Heidegger[edit]

According to Reinhard May and Graham Parkes, Heidegger may have been influenced by Zen and Daoist texts.[86][87] Some of Martin Heidegger's philosophical terms, such as Ab-grund (void), Das Nichts (the Nothing) and Dasein have been considered in light of Buddhist terms which express similar ideas such as Emptiness.[88][89] Heidegger wrote that: “As void [Ab-grund], Being ‘is’ at once the nothing [das Nichts] as well as the ground.”[90] Heidegger's "Dialogue on Language", has a Japanese friend (Tezuka Tomio) state that "to us [Japanese] emptiness is the loftiest name for what you mean to say with the word ‘Being’”[91] Heidegger's critique of metaphysics has also been compared to Zen's radical anti-metaphysical attitude.[91] William Barrett held that Heidegger's philosophy was similar to Zen Buddhism and that Heidegger himself had confirmed this after reading the works of DT Suzuki.[91]

Existentialism[edit]

Jean-Paul Sartre believed that consciousness lacks an essence or any fixed characteristics and that insight into this caused a strong sense of Existential angst or Nausea. Sartre saw consciousness as defined by its ability of negation, this happens because whenever consciousness becomes conscious of something it is aware of itself not being that intentional object. Consciousness is nothingness because all being-in-itself - the entire world of objects - is outside of it.[92] Furthermore, for Sartre, being-in-itself is also nothing more than appearance, it has no essence.[93] This conception of the self as nothingness and of reality as lacking any inherent essence has been compared to the Buddhist concept of Emptiness and Not-self.[94][95] Just like the Buddhists rejected the Hindu concept of Atman, Sartre rejected Husserl's concept of the transcendental ego.

Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology has been said to be similar to Zen Buddhism and Madhyamaka in that they all hold to the interconnection of the self, body and the world (the "lifeworld"). The unity of body and mind (shēnxīn, 身心) expressed by the Buddhism of Dogen and Zhanran and Merleau-Ponty's view of the corporeity of consciousness seem to be in agreement. They both hold that the conscious mind is inherently connected to the body and the external world and that the lifeworld is experienced dynamically through the body, denying any independent Cartesian Cogito.[96]

The German existentialist Karl Jaspers also wrote on the philosophy of the Buddha in his "The Great Philosophers" (1975). He recommended that Western Christians could learn from the Buddha, praised his cosmopolitanism and the flexibility and relatively non-dogmatic worldview of Buddhism.[97]

Kyoto School[edit]

File:Kitaro Nishidain in Feb. 1943.jpg
Kitaro Nishida, Feb. 1943

The Kyoto School was a Japanese philosophical movement centered around Kyoto University that assimilated western philosophical influences (such as Kant and Heidegger) and Mahayana Buddhist ideas to create a new original philosophical synthesis.[98] Its founder, Nishida Kitaro (1870–1945) developed the central concept associated with the Kyoto school, that is the concept of “Absolute Nothingness” (zettai-mu) which is related to the Zen Buddhist term Mu (無) as well as Shunyata.[98] Nishida saw the Absolute nature of reality as Nothingness, a "formless", "groundless ground" which envelops all beings and allows them to undergo change and pass away.[98]

Buddhism and Process philosophy[edit]

The process philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead has several convergent points with Buddhist philosophy.[99] Whitehead saw reality as an impermanent constant process of flux and denied that objects had any real substance within them, but rather were ever changing occasions. This is similar to the Buddhist concepts of the impermanence and emptiness.[100] Whitehead also held that each one of these processes was never independent, but was interrelated and dependent all prior occasions, and this feature of reality which he called 'creativity' has been compared to dependent origination which holds that all events are conditioned by multiple past causes.[99][100] Like Buddhism, Whitehead also held that our understanding of the world is usually mistaken because we hold to the ‘fallacy of misplaced concreteness’ in seeing constantly changing processes as having fixed substances.[100] Buddhism teaches that suffering and stress arises from our ignorance to the true nature of the world. Likewise, Whitehead held that the world is "haunted by terror" at this process of change. "The ultimate evil in the temporal world...lies in the fact that the past fades, that time is a ‘perpetual perishing’" (PR, p. 340). In this sense, Whitehead's concept of "evil" is similar to the Buddhist viparinama-dukkha, suffering caused by change.[99] Whitehead also had a view of God which has been likened to the Mahayana theory of the Trikaya as well as the Bodhisattva ideal.[99]

Panpsychism and Buddha-nature[edit]

Panpsychism is the view that mind or soul is a universal feature of all things, this has been a common view in western philosophy going back to the Presocratics and Plato. According to D. S. Clarke, panpsychist and panexperientialist aspects can be found in the Huayan and Tiantai (Jpn. Tendai) Buddhist doctrines of Buddha nature, which was often attributed to inanimate objects such as lotus flowers and mountains.[101]

Bergson[edit]

Several Hindu authors have found parallels to Hindu philosophy in Bergson's thought. The integrative evolutionism of Sri Aurobindo, an Indian philosopher from the early 20th century, has many similarities to Bergson's philosophy. Whether this represents a direct influence of Bergson is disputed, although Aurobindo was familiar with many Western philosophers.[102] K Narayanaswami Aiyer, a member of the Theosophical Society, published a pamphlet titled "Professor Bergson and the Hindu Vedanta", where he argued that Bergson's ideas on matter, consciousness, and evolution were in agreement with Vedantic and Puranic explanations.[103] Nalini Kanta Brahma, Marie Tudor Garland and Hope Fitz are other authors who have comparatively evaluated Hindu and Bergsonian philosophies, especially in relation to intuition, consciousness and evolution.[104][105][106]

Wittgenstein[edit]

Ludwig Wittgenstein held a therapeutic view of philosophy which according to K.T. Fann has "striking resemblances" to the Zen Buddhist conception of the dharma as a medicine for abstract linguistic and philosophical confusion.[107] C. Gudmunsen in his Wittgenstein and Buddhism argues that "much of what the later Wittgenstein had to say was anticipated about 1,800 years ago in India." In his book, Gudmunsen mainly compares Wittgenstein's later philosophy with Madhyamaka views on the emptiness of thought and words.[108] One of Wittgenstein's students, the Sri Lankan philosopher KN Jayatilleke, wrote Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge which interpreted the epistemology of the early Buddhist texts analytically.

Many modern interpreters of Nagarjuna (Jay Garfield, CW Huntington) take a Wittgensteinian or Post-Wittgensteinian critical model in their work on Madhyamaka Buddhist philosophy.[109] Ives Waldo writes that Nagarjuna's criticism of the idea of svabhava (own-being) "directly parallels Wittgenstein's argument that a private language (an empiricist language) is impossible. Having no logical links (criteria) to anything outside their defining situation, its words must be empty of significance or use."[110]

William James[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Derrida and Indian Philosophy, Harold Coward
  • Kierkegaard and Japanese Thought | J. Giles
  • Steve Odin has noted how Alfred North Whitehead used similar ideas as part of his process philosophy. Whitehead was influenced most particularly by Abhidharma Buddhism. Therefore, what is widely credited by Western thinkers as 'Whiteheadean' thought should more appropriately be termed the 'process philosophy of Indra's Net' (or even more specifically, Abhidharma Buddhism).
  • Gregory Fahy has examined John Dewey's idea of local, contextual and relational metaphysics as a subset of the Hua-yen thinking of Indra's Net. Mathematicians studying chaos theory and fractals have described the beauty of structures as 'Indras's Net', 'Indra's necklace' and 'Indra's pearls'. In physics, the notion of quantum entanglement is a special case of the kind of interconnectivity we are describing....
    • Indra's Net by Rajiv Malhotra
  • Hindu Influence on Greek Philosophy: The Odyssey of the Soul From the Upanishads to Plato by Timothy Lomperis
  • Nicholas Kazanas. Advaita & Gnosticism, VVRI Research Bulletin (Hoshiarpur), vol, 2 (43-112), 2003. *Kazanas, N. "Advaita and Gnosticism." Indian Historical Review 32.1 (2005): 197–254.
    • 2004 ‘Plato and the Upaniṣads’ in Brahmavidyā: Adyar Library Bulletin.
  • Kazanas, Nicholas. "Archaic Greece and the Veda." Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 82.1/4 (2001): 1–42.
    • Anatolian bull and Vedic horse in the Indo-European diffusion. 2005. Adyar Library Bulletin (2003)
    • Vedic and Mesopotamian cross-influences. 2004 (Published in Migration & Diffusion (Vienna) 2005 and by the Adyar Library Bulletin (2006: Olcott commemorative issue). This was also incorporated in the study Vedic, Mesopotamian and Egyptian Religiophilosophical Thought (in print by PHISPC in the volume Chain of Golden Civilizations)
    • Vedic and Egyptian Affinities.(2002, 2006 in Puratattva. Also incorporated in the study Vedic, Mesopotamia
    • 2001b ‘Archaic Greece and the Veda’ in ABORI, vol 82, in press.
    • 2001b ‘IndoEuropean Deities and the Rgveda’ Journal of Indo-European Studies vol 29, 257-93.
  • Kazanas, Nicholas. "Renaissances with Vedic Vaāk and Hellenic Logos." IUP Journal of History & Culture 4.4 (2010).
  • Kazanas, N. 2004 ‘Plato and the Upaniṣads’ in Brahmavidyā: Adyar Library Bulletin.


  • Radhakrishnan, Eastern Religions and Western Thought
  • May, Reinhard_ Heidegger, Martin_ Parkes, Graham - Heidegger's hidden sources _ East Asian influences on his work
  • The roar of awakening : a Whiteheadian dialogue between Western psychotherapies and Eastern worldviews
  • The metaphysics of becoming : on the relationship between creativity and God in Whitehead and supermind and Sachchidananda in Aurobindo

See also[edit]

  • David Loy's A Buddhist history of the West.

References[edit]

<templatestyles src="Reflist/styles.css" />

  1. Conze, Edward. Buddhist Philosophy and Its European Parallels. Philosophy East and West 13, p.9-23, no.1, January 1963. University press of Hawaii.
  2. Beckwith, Christopher I. (2015). Greek Buddha: Pyrrho's Encounter with Early Buddhism in Central Asia [archive] (PDF). Princeton University Press. p. 28. ISBN 9781400866328.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kuzminski, Pyrrhonism How the Ancient Greeks Reinvented Buddhism; for a recent study see Halkias "The Self-immolation of Kalanos and other Luminous Encounters among Greeks and Indian Buddhists in the Hellenistic World" Jocbs. 2015 (8): 163–186. https://www.academia.edu/12679460/The_Self-immolation_of_Kalanos_and_other_Luminous_Encounters_Among_Greeks_and_Indian_Buddhists_in_the_Hellenistic_World [archive]
  4. ibidem, cf. Porphyry's Vita Plotini, chapt. 3
  5. Eusebius, Historia eccl. VI, 9
  6. Harris, R. Baine (ed.), Neoplatonism and Indian Thought, Norfolk Va., 1982: The International Society for Neoplatonic Studies
  7. Porphyry, Life of Plotinus, from Reale, G., (1990), A History of Ancient Philosophy IV: The Schools of the Imperial Age. Page 298. SUNY Press.
  8. Porphyry, On the Life of Plotinus and the Order of His Books, Ch. 3 (in Armstrong's Loeb translation, "he became eager to make acquaintance with the Persian philosophical discipline and that prevailing among the Indians").
  9. Swami-krishnananda.org [archive]
  10. J. F. Staal (1961), Advaita and Neoplatonism: A critical study in comparative philosophy, Madras: University of Madras
  11. Frederick Charles Copleston. "Religion and the One 1979–1981" [archive]. Giffordlectures.org. Archived from the original [archive] on 9 April 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Special section "Fra Oriente e Occidente" in Annuario filosofico No. 6 (1990), including the articles "Plotino e l'India" by Aldo Magris and "L'India e Plotino" by Mario Piantelli
  13. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (ed.)(1952), History of Philosophy Eastern and Western, Vol.2. London: George Allen & Unwin. p. 114
  14. "Creator (or not?)" [archive]. Gresham.ac.uk. Retrieved 8 January 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. John Y. Fenton (1981), "Mystical Experience as a Bridge for Cross-Cultural Philosophy of Religion: A Critique", Journal of the American Academy of Religion, p. 55
  16. Dale Riepe (1967), "Emerson and Indian Philosophy", Journal of the History of Ideas 28(1):115 (1967)
  17. Graham Anderson: Philostratus, London 1986, pp. 199–215; Flinterman pp. 86–87, 101–106.
  18. Bhattacharya, The Āgamaśātra of Gaudapāda (University of Calcutta Press) 1943 (reprint Delhi 1989).
  19. Bhattacharya (1943) 1989, pp. LXXII–LXXV.
  20. The Cambridge History of Classical Literature, vol. 1, ed. P.E. Easterling/B.M.W. Knox, Cambridge 1985, p. 657; Dzielska p. 29; Anderson p. 173; Flinterman p. 80 n. 113.
  21. Simon Swain: "Apollonius in Wonderland", in: Ethics and Rhetoric, ed. Doreen Innes, Oxford 1995, pp. 251–54.
  22. Literary Remains of the Late Professor Theodore Goldstucker, W. H. Allen, 1879. p. 32.
  23. The Westminster Review, Volumes 78–79, Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1862. p. 1862
  24. Three Lectures on the Vedanta Philosophy. F. Max Muller. Kessinger Publishing, 2003. p. 123
  25. H.P Blavatsky's Collected Writings, Volume 13, pp. 308–10. Quest Books
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Mungello, David E. (1971). "Leibniz's Interpretation of Neo-Confucianism". Philosophy East and West. 21 (1): 3–22. doi:10.2307/1397760 [archive].<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. On Leibniz, the I Ching, and binary numbers, see Aiton (1985: 245–48). Leibniz's writings on Chinese civilization are collected and translated in Cook and Rosemont (1994), and discussed in Perkins (2004).
  28. Agarwal, Ravi P; Sen, Syamal K (2014). Creators of Mathematical and Computational Sciences. Springer, Cham. p. 186. ISBN 978-3-319-10870-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. Cook, Daniel. "Leibniz, China, and the Problem of Pagan Wisdom" [archive]. Project Muse. Project Muse. Retrieved 12 April 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. 30.0 30.1 Hume, David. A Treatise of Human Nature, Book I Part IV Section VI: Of Personal Identity
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 Giles, James. The No-Self Theory: Hume, Buddhism, and Personal Identity, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 43, No. 2 (Apr., 1993), pp. 175-200, University of Hawai'i Press.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Gopnik, Alison. Could David Hume Have Known about Buddhism? Charles Francois Dolu, the Royal College of La Flèche, and the Global Jesuit Intellectual Network. Hume Studies, Volume 35, Number 1&2, 2009, pp. 5–28.
  33. Parfit, Reasons and Persons 1984, p 273
  34. Parfit, Reasons and Persons 1984, pp. 280-81
  35. MacFarquhar, Larissa. HOW TO BE GOOD, An Oxford philosopher thinks he can distill all morality into a formula. Is he right? 2011
  36. "Lectures on the science of language, delivered at the Royal institution of Great Britain in 1861 [and 1863]", by Max Muller, p. 148, original from = Oxford University
  37. The Modern Review, Volume 32, p. 183, by Ramananda Chatterjee, originally from = University of Michigan"
  38. Pensées végétariennes, Voltaire, éditions Mille et une nuits.
  39. Guardian (UK) newspaper, review of Bloodless Revolution, published by Harper-Collins [archive]
  40. Tola & Dragonetti, Philosophy of mind in the Yogacara Buddhist idealistic school, History of Psychiatry, 16(4): 453–465. "Archived copy" [archive] (PDF). Archived from the original [archive] (PDF) on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. 41.0 41.1 Butler, Sean. Idealism in Yogācāra Buddhism, The Hilltop Review, Western Michigan University.
  42. Chan, Wing-cheuk, Yogacara Buddhism and Sartre’s Phenomenology.
  43. T. R. V. Murti, The Central Philosophy of Buddhism
  44. Burton, David. Buddhism, Knowledge and Liberation: A Philosophical Study, 107.
  45. Conze, Edward. Spurious Parallels to Buddhist Philosophy, Philosophy East and West 13, no.2, pp105-115 January 1963.
  46. Urs App, Richard Wagner and Buddhism, pg 17
  47. Schopenhauer, On the Sufferings of the world
  48. oregonstate.edu page on Schopenhauer & Buddhism http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl201/modules/Philosophers/Schopenhauer/schopenhauer.html [archive]
  49. 49.0 49.1 Wicks, Robert, "Arthur Schopenhauer", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2011/entries/schopenhauer/ [archive]>
  50. Hutton, Kenneth Compassion in Schopenhauer and Śāntideva. Journal of Buddhist Ethics Vol. 21 (2014) [archive] and (2009) Ethics in Schopenhauer and Buddhism. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow http://theses.gla.ac.uk/912/ [archive].
  51. Clarke, John James (1997). Oriental enlightenment. Routledge. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-415-13376-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. Dutt, Purohit Bhagavan. "Western Indologists: A Study in Motives" [archive]. Archived from the original [archive] on 2 August 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. Christopher McCoy, 3–4
  54. Christopher McCoy, 54–56
  55. Abelson, Peter (April 1993). Schopenhauer and Buddhism [archive]. Philosophy East and West Volume 43, Number 2, pp. 255–278. University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved on: 12 April 2008.
  56. Janaway, Christopher, Self and World in Schopenhauer's Philosophy, pp. 28 ff.
  57. David Burton, "Buddhism, Knowledge and Liberation: A Philosophical Study." Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2004, p. 22.
  58. John J. Holder, Early Buddhist Discourses. Hackett Publishing Company, 2006, p. xx.
  59. Godwin, J: Arktos: The Polar Myth in Science, Symbolism, and Nazi Survival, p. 38. Adventures Unlimited Press, 1996, <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css" />ISBN 978-0-932813-35-0
  60. Arktos, p. 38.
  61. "Schopenhauer is often said to be the first, or indeed the only, modern Western philosopher of any note to attempt any integration of his work with Eastern ways of thinking. That he was the first is surely true, but the claim that he was influenced by Indian thought needs some qualification. There is a remarkable correspondence, at least in broad terms, between some of the central Schopenhauerian doctrines and Buddhism: notably in the views that empirical existence is suffering, that suffering originates in desires, and that salvation can be attained by the extinction of desires. These three 'truths of the Buddha' are mirrored closely in the essential structure of the doctrine of the will." (On this, see Dorothea W. Dauer, Schopenhauer as Transmitter of Buddhist Ideas. Note also the discussion by Bryan Magee, The Philosophy of Schopenhauer, pp. 14–15, 316–21). Janaway, Christopher, Self and World in Schopenhauer's Philosophy, p. 28 f.
  62. The World as Will and Representation, Vol. 2, Ch. 17
  63. Artistic detachment in Japan and the West: psychic distance in comparative aesthetics by S. Odin – 2001 – University of Hawaii Press.
  64. Parerga & Paralipomena, vol. I, p. 106., trans. E.F.J. Payne.
  65. World as Will and Representation, vol. I, p. 273, trans. E.F.J. Payne.
  66. Christopher McCoy, 3
  67. App, Urs Arthur Schopenhauer and China. Sino-Platonic Papers Nr. 200 (April 2010) [archive] (PDF, 8.7 Mb PDF, 164 p.; Schopenhauer's early notes on Buddhism reproduced in Appendix). This study provides an overview of the actual discovery of Buddhism by Schopenhauer.
  68. Hutton, Kenneth Compassion in Schopenhauer and Śāntideva. Journal of Buddhist Ethics Vol. 21 (2014) [archive]
  69. Nietzsche, The Anti-Christ, R. J. Hollingdale (Trans and Ed.) (Harmondsworth: Penguin), No. 20, p.129.
  70. Panaïoti, Antoine; Nietzsche and Buddhist Philosophy, p 2
  71. Panaïoti, Antoine; Nietzsche and Buddhist Philosophy, p 3
  72. 72.0 72.1 72.2 Elman, Benjamin A. Nietzsche and Buddhism, Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 44, No. 4. (Oct. - Dec., 1983), pp. 671-686.
  73. Panaïoti, Antoine; Nietzsche and Buddhist Philosophy, p 49
  74. MORRISON, ROBERT G. Nietzsche and Buddhism: A Study in Nihilism and Ironic Affinities. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997
  75. Morrison, Robert G. Nietzsche and Buddhism: A Study in Nihilism and Ironic Affinities; Reviewed by Loy, David R. Asian Philosophy Vol. 8, No. 2 (July 1998) pp. 129-131 Copyright 1998 Journals Oxford Ltd. (UK), http://enlight.lib.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-EPT/loy.htm [archive]
  76. Loy, David; Beyond good and evil? A Buddhist critique of Nietzsche. Asian Philosophy Vol. 6, No. 1 (March, 1996) pp. 37-58, http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/loy1.htm [archive]
  77. Nyanaponika Thera, Abhidhamma studies, p20.
  78. A. Piatigorsky The Buddhist philosophy of thought. — Totowa, N. J., 1984
  79. Dan Lusthaus. Buddhist Phenomenology: A Philosophical Investigation of Yogacara Buddhism and the Ch'eng Wei-shih Lun. Curzon Critical Studies in Buddhism Series. London: Routledge, 2002. Page viii
  80. Sharf, R.H. Is Yogācāra Phenomenology? Some Evidence from the Cheng weishi lun, Indian Philos (2016) 44: 777. doi:10.1007/s10781-015-9282-7
  81. Coseru, Christian; Perceiving Reality: Consciousness, Intentionality, and Cognition in Buddhist Philosophyu
  82. 82.0 82.1 82.2 Hanna, Fred; Husserl on the Teachings of the Buddha; in The Humanistic Psychologist 23(3):365-372 · September 1995.
  83. 83.0 83.1 83.2 83.3 Lau Kwok Ying, Husserl, Buddhism and the problematic crisis of the European sciences; http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/rih/phs/events/200405_PEACE/papers/LAUKwokYing.PDF [archive]
  84. Cairns, D. Conversations with Husserl and Fink, p. 50; The Hague: Nijhoff.
  85. Prosser, Aaron; Siddhartha, Husserl, and Neurophenomenology, Journal of Consciousness Studies, Volume 20, Numbers 5-6, 2013, pp. 151-170(20)
  86. Parkes, Graham. Heidegger and Asian Thought
  87. May, Reinhard, Heidegger's Hidden Sources: East-Asian Influences on his Work
  88. Rolf von Eckartsberg and Ronald S. Valle, Heideggerian Thinking and the Eastern Mind.
  89. Wing-cheuk Chan, HEIDEGGER AND CHINESE BUDDHISM
  90. Backman, Jussi. THE ABSENT FOUNDATION HEIDEGGER ON THE RATIONALITY OF BEING.
  91. 91.0 91.1 91.2 Storey, David “Zen in Heidegger’s Way”, Journal of East-West philosophy.
  92. Phra Medidhammaporn (Prayoon Mererk): Sartre’s Existentialism and Early Buddhism. Publisher: Buddhadhamma Foundation.
  93. H. Lee, Sander. Notions of Selflessness in Sartrean Existentialism and Theravadin Buddhism. http://www.bu.edu/wcp/Papers/Reli/ReliLee.htm [archive]
  94. Steven William Laycock, Nothingness and Emptiness: A Buddhist Engagement With the Ontology of Jean-Paul Sartre
  95. Gokhale,Sarah. Empty Selves: A Comparative Analysis of Mahayana Buddhism, Jean-Paul Sartre’s Existentialism, and Depth Psychology.
  96. Jin Y. Park, Gereon Kopf (editors). Merleau-Ponty and Buddhism, pg 4, pg84.
  97. Helmut Wautischer, Alan M. Olson, Gregory J. Walters; Philosophical Faith and the Future of Humanity, p 415-417
  98. 98.0 98.1 98.2 Davis, Bret W., "The Kyoto School", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2010/entries/kyoto-school/ [archive]>.
  99. 99.0 99.1 99.2 99.3 Inada, Kenneth K. The metaphysics of Buddhist experience and the Whiteheadian encounter, Philosophy East and West Vol. 25/1975.10. P.465-487 http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-PHIL/inada3.htm [archive]
  100. 100.0 100.1 100.2 McFarlane, Thomas J. Process and Emptiness: A Comparison of Whitehead’s Process Philosophy and Mahayana Buddhist Philosophy.
  101. Clarke, D.S. Panpsychism: past and recent selected readings, pg 39.
  102. K Mackenzie Brown. "Hindu perspectives on evolution: Darwin, Dharma, and Design". Routledge, Jan 2012. Page 164-166
  103. KN Aiyer. "Professor Bergson and the Hindu Vedanta". Vasanta Press. 1910. Pages 36 – 37.
  104. Marie Tudor Garland. "Hindu Mind Training". Longmans, Green and Company, 1917. Page 20.
  105. Nalini Kanta Brahma. "Philosophy of Hindu Sadhana". PHI Learning Private Ltd 2008.
  106. Hope K Fitz. "Intuition: Its nature and uses in human experience." Motilal Banarsidass publishers 2000. Pages 22–30.
  107. K. T. Fann, Wittgenstein's Conception of Philosophy, pg110
  108. Gudmunsen, Chris Wittgenstein and Buddhism, 1977, p. 113.
  109. Rosenquist, Tina. Demystifying the saint, Jay L Garfield's rational reconstruction of Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka as the epitome of cross-cultural philosophy.
  110. Ives Waldo, "Naagaarjuna and Analytic Philosophy, "Philosophy East and West 25, no. 3 (July p. 169 1975): 281-290.


Links[edit]