Bipin Chandra Pal

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Bipin Chandra Pal
Born (1858-11-07)7 November 1858
Poil, Habiganj, Sylhet District, Bengal Presidency, British India
Died Script error: No such module "age".
Calcutta (now Kolkata), British India
Alma mater University of Calcutta
Occupation Politician
Indian independence movement activist
Social reformer
Organization Brahmo Samaj
Political party Indian National Congress
Movement Indian Independence movement

Bipin Chandra Pal (Bengali: বিপিন চন্দ্র পাল, Sylheti: ꠛꠤꠙꠤꠘ ꠌꠘ꠆ꠖ꠆ꠞ ꠙꠣꠟ, About this sound pronunciation ; 7 November 1858 – 20 May 1932) was an Indian nationalist, writer, orator, social reformer and Indian independence movement activist. He was one third of the Lal Bal Pal triumvirate.[1] Pal was one of the main architects of the Swadeshi movement. He stood against the partition of Bengal by the colonial British government.

Early life and background[edit]

Bipin Chandra Pal was born in the village of Poil, Habiganj, Sylhet District, Bengal Presidency of British India, in a Hindu Bengali Kayastha family.[2] His Sylheti father was Ramchandra Pal, a Persian scholar, and small landowner. He studied and taught at the Church Mission Society College (now the St. Paul's Cathedral Mission College), an affiliated college of the University of Calcutta.[3] His son was Niranjan Pal, one of the founders of Bombay Talkies. His son-in-law was the ICS officer, S. K. Dey, who later became a union minister. His another son-in-law was freedom fighter Ullaskar Dutta who married Lila Dutta.

As revolutionary as he was in politics, Pal was the same in his private life as well. After his first wife died, he married a widow and joined the Brahmo Samaj.[4]


Pal is known as the Father of Revolutionary Thoughts in India and was one of the freedom fighters of India.[5] Pal became a major leader of the Indian National Congress. At the Madras session of Indian National Congress held in 1887, Bipin Chandra Pal made a strong plea for repeal of the Arms Act which was discriminatory in nature. Along with Lala Lajpat Rai and Bal Gangadhar Tilak he belonged to the Lal, Bal, Pal trio that was associated with revolutionary activity. Aurobindo Ghosh and Pal were recognised as the chief exponents of a new national movement revolving around the ideals of Purna Swaraj, Swadeshi, boycott and national education. His programme consisted of Swadeshi, boycott and national education. He preached and encouraged the use of Swadeshi and the boycott of foreign goods to eradicate poverty and unemployment. He wanted to remove social evils from the form and arouse the feelings of nationalism through national criticism. He had no faith in mild protests in the form of non-cooperation with the British colonialists. On that one issue, the assertive nationalist leader had nothing common with Mahatma Gandhi. During the last six years of his life, he parted company with the Congress and led a secluded life. Sri Aurobindo referred to him as one of mightiest prophets of nationalism.Bipin Chandra Pal made his efforts to remove social and economic ills. He opposed caste system and advocated widow remarriage. He advocated 48 hours of work week and demanded for the hike in wages of workers. He expressed his disdain for Gandhi's ways, which he criticised for being rooted in “magic” instead of “logic”.[4]

As a journalist, Pal worked for Bengal Public Opinion, The Tribune and New India, where he propagated his brand of nationalism.[6] He wrote several articles warning India of the changes happening in China and other geopolitical situations. In one of his writings, describing where the future danger for India will come from, Pal wrote under the title "Our Real Danger".[7]


  1. Ashalatha, A.; Koropath, Pradeep; Nambarathil, Saritha (2009). "Chapter 6 – Indian National Movement" (PDF). Social Science: Standard VIII Part 1. Government of Kerala • Department of Education. State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT). p. 72. Retrieved 13 October 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. M.K. Singh (2009). Encyclopedia Of Indian War Of Independence (1857–1947). Anmol Publications. p. 130. Bipin Chandra Pal (1858–1932) a patriot, nationalist politician, renowned orator, journalist, and writer. Bipin Chandra Pal was born on 7 November 1858 in Sylhet in a wealthy Hindu Kayastha family<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "List of distinguished alumni". Archived from the original on 25 September 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2019.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Bipin Chandra Pal: As much a revolutionary in politics, as in his private life". 12 January 2020. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Bipin Chandra Pal". youtube. 19 May 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Sequeira, Dolly (2018). Total History & Civics. India: Morning Star (A unit of MSB Publishers Pvt. Ltd). p. 53.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Madhav, Ram (2014). Uneasy neighbours : India and China after 50 years of the war. New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications. pp. 10, 11, 12. ISBN 978-81-241-1788-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Further reading[edit]

  • Owen, N (2007), The British Left and India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-923301-4<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lenman, Bruce; Marsden, Hilary, eds. (2005). Chambers Dictionary of World History. London: Chambers Harrap. ISBN 978-0-550-10094-8 – via Credo Reference.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Pal, Bipin Chandra (1916), Nationality and Empire, Thacker, Spink & Co / Low Price Publications, ISBN 81-7536-274-X<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

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