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The word Atithigva is found in thirteen hymns in the Rigveda:

The fact that Atithigva represents three different entities in the Rigveda is accepted by many scholars. Keith and Macdonell, in their Vedic Index of Names and Subjects,7 note that “Roth distinguishes three Atithigvas - the Atithigva DivodAsa, the enemy of ParNaya and Karanja, and the enemy of TUrvayANa”. Keith and Macdonell themselves appear to disagree: “But the various passages can be reconciled.” However, actually, their own interpretation must also show three Atithigvas, since, even within the favourable references to Atithigva, they admit that while the word refers “in nearly all cases to the same king, otherwise called DivodAsa”, nevertheless “a different Atithigva appears to be referred to in a DAnastuti (‘Praise of Gifts’) where his son Indrota is mentioned”.c