Outline of ancient India

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient India:

Ancient IndiaIndia as it existed from pre-historic times (c. 7000 BCE or earlier) to the start of the Middle Ages (c. 500 CE).[1]

Geography of ancient India[edit]

General history of ancient India[edit]

Periodisation of Indian history[edit]

An elaborate periodisation may be as follows:[2]

  • Pre-Classical period (c. 200 BCE-320 CE);
  • "Golden Age" (Gupta Empire) (c. 320-650 CE);
  • Late-Classical period (c. 650-1200 CE);
  • Medieval period (c. 1200-1500 CE);
  • Early Modern (c. 1500-1850);
  • Modern period (British Raj and independence) (from c. 1850).

Indian pre-history[edit]

Iron Age (c. 1200 – 272 BCE)[edit]

Second Urbanisation[edit]

Classical Age[edit]

Middle Ages (c. 500 – 1500)[edit]

Culture in ancient India[edit]

Art in ancient India[edit]

Language in ancient India[edit]

Religion in ancient India[edit]

Science and technology in ancient India[edit]

Organizations concerned with ancient India[edit]

Museums with ancient Indian exhibits[edit]

Publications about ancient India[edit]

Scholars who have written about ancient India[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. Different periods are designated as "classical Hinduism":
    • Smart calls the period between 1000 BCE and 100 CE "pre-classical". It is the formative period for the Upanishads and Brahmanism[subnote 1] Jainism and Buddhism. For Smart, the "classical period" lasts from 100 to 1000 CE, and coincides with the flowering of "classical Hinduism" and the flowering and deterioration of Mahayana-buddhism in India.[4]
    • For Michaels, the period between 500 BCE and 200 BCE is a time of "Ascetic reformism",[5] whereas the period between 200 BCE and 1100 CE is the time of "classical Hinduism", since there is "a turning point between the Vedic religion and Hindu religions".[6]
    • Muesse discerns a longer period of change, namely between 800 BCE and 200 BCE, which he calls the "Classical Period". According to Muesse, some of the fundamental concepts of Hinduism, namely karma, reincarnation and "personal enlightenment and transformation", which did not exist in the Vedic religion, developed in this time.[7]


  1. Smart distinguishes "Brahmanism" from the Vedic religion, connecting "Brahmanism" with the Upanishads.[3]


  1. Stein 2010, p. 38.
  2. Michaels 2004.
  3. Smart 2003, p. 52, 83-86.
  4. Smart 2003, p. 52.
  5. Michaels 2004, p. 36.
  6. Michaels 2004, p. 38.
  7. Muesse 2003, p. 14.

Ancient India at wikipedia:

  • Ancient India was made a redirect (after a short discussion) by Joshua Johnathan in 2013, having been a short text and lists. I'm not sure this was a good idea [1]


  • Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Khanna, Meenakshi (2007), Cultural History Of Medieval India, Berghahn Books<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004), A History of India, Routledge<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Misra, Amalendu (2004), Identity and Religion: Foundations of Anti-Islamism in India, SAGE<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Muesse, Mark William (2003), Great World Religions: Hinduism<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Muesse, Mark W. (2011), The Hindu Traditions: A Concise Introduction, Fortress Press<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Smart, Ninian (2003), Godsdiensten van de wereld (The World's religions), Kampen: Uitgeverij Kok<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Stein, Burton (2010), A History of India, John Wiley & Sons<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Thapar, Romila (1978), Ancient Indian Social History: Some Interpretations (PDF), Orient Blackswan<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links[edit]

bn:প্রাচীন ভারত ko:고대 인도 hi:प्राचीन भारत mk:Древна Индија ne:प्राचीन भारत pt:Índia antiga sv:Antikens och forntidens Indien uk:Стародавня Індія